So, you've got these bonded atoms. They complete each other and are perfectly stable. That's nice and all, but how are they joined? What type of bond do they have?
So what exactly is a bond?
A chemical bond is a mutual attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atom together. So basically, one atom's valence electron is pulled toward the other atom's nucleus. This happens because the negative electron is compelled toward the positive protons, contained within the nucleus.
Why do atoms bond?
Covalent bonds occur when two nonmetals join together. This type of bond is characterized by a very low melting point, so you would be able to see them melted in a lab if you used a Bunsen burner. Covalent bonds might possibly dissolve into water, but would not be conductive in this state. Then again, they are not conductive in any other form so the atoms probably don't care.
Option 1: Covalent Bond
A metallic bond is created when two metals are bonded. You can identify a metallic bond through it's shiny appearance. These bonded atoms do not dissolve in water. However, unlike covalent bonded atoms, they are conductive in any other state.
Option 2: Metallic Bond
You can see an ionic bond if there is a nonmetal bonded to a metal. Ionic bonds are dissolvable into water. They have a very high melting point, so you unfortunately would not be able to see it melted within one of your labs. This type of bond is conductive as a liquid.
Option 3: Ionic bond
Nature absolutely LOVES atoms with lower potential energy, most likely due to the fact that this makes an atom more stable, which is an atom's lifelong goal. The bonding occurs more readily between two high energy atoms. Now, that may seem weird to you, because wouldn't two high energy atoms bonding just make an even higher energy? But, thankfully for those atoms, their energy actually lowers when bonded.
Bonding atoms follow the octet rule. This means that when atoms bond, they want a full valence electron shell with eight electrons. This is what makes bonded atoms have a lower potential energy and be more stable. The only exception to this rule is Boron, who wants 10-12 valence electrons.
What happens if bonded atoms share characteristics of two types of bonds?
Some bonded atoms share characteristics with two different bond classifications. This happens when they have a polar covalent bond, which means the atoms unequally share energy. The bond types are most clearly shown if there is a nonpolar covalent bond, which is a bond with equally shared energy between the atoms.
If you have finished reading and want to test your knowledge and understanding, then you can answer some of these following questions:
-How many types of bonds are there?
-What type of bond is metal+metal?
-What type of bond is nonmetal+metal?
-What type of bond is nonmetal+nonmetal?
-Which bond type is conductive in all states except when dissolved in water, because this bond cannot dissolve?
-What type of covalent bond do atoms have if they share characteristics of two bond types?
-How many valence electrons do most atoms want?
What rule to atoms follow when filling their valence electron shell?