Ancient Egypt

By: Paige Tatus

Map of Egypt

Stable Food Supply

The ancient Egyptians had lived near the Nile river. The river supplied the Egyptians with plenty of water and the river also flooded annually. The river would leave fertile topsoil instead of the dry sand. This soil was used to grow crops. These crops included wheat, barley, and bread. They also grew various fruits and vegetables along with papyrus (used to make rope and paper) and reed (used to make baskets and roofs for huts). In order to keep these crops watered the Egyptians built water wheels that brought water from the river to the thirsty crops. The Egyptians also ate lamb, goat, and fish from the river. They also drank beer and wine. The river played an important role in the Egyptian's stable food supply.


The Egyptians worshiped many gods. Some of those gods were Ra, Anubis, Osiris, and Horus. Ra was the most powerful god. The Egyptians believed Ra as the sun god. Anubis was the god of death, funerals and embalming. Osiris was the god of earth and vegetation. Horus was the falcon god. he was also the son of Osiris and Isis.

The Arts

The Egyptians intertwined the arts with their religion. The Egyptians created temples that held things such as paintings (on wall) and statues of the gods. There were also statues of the pharaohs. The Egyptians are probably most well-known for the sphinx and the Great Pyramid of Giza. The sphinx is a large statue of a creature with the body of a lion and the face of a man. The pyramids were built as tombs for pharaohs. Inside the tomb were fine pieces of jewelry, gold headdresses, and beautifully crafted sarcophaguses. The tomb also contains wall paintings and statues. The art was believed to help the pharaohs.

Written Language

The Egyptian's form of writing was called hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics were written using different symbols. Some symbols included shapes such as squares and circles, some were animals such as owls and snakes, others were just squiggles. Each picture could have numeral translations. People today use the Rosetta stone to translate hieroglyphics. The Rosetta stone says the exact same thing in both hieroglyphics and Greek.

Advances in Technology

The Egyptians invented many things to help them in their daily life. One thing the Egyptians invented was the water wheel. The water wheel carried water from the Nile to crops, so the crops won't go thirsty. The Egyptians also invented a form of writing called hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics were used to record events and trading. Events and trading was recorded on another invention, called papyrus. Papyrus was an early form of paper. Ships were also important to technology. Ships were used to trade items across the Nile.

System of Government

The Egyptian government was ruled by a king, or pharaoh. The pharaoh was greatly worshiped because they were believed to be the living god on earth. The pharaoh Khufu invented the Great Pyramid at Giza, the first pyramid. The pharaoh Senusret created obelisks, beautiful temples, and other buildings. Hatshepsut was the first female pharaoh and built many temples. Ramses II ruled Egypt for over 60 years and built temples and tombs. He also made military campaigns with Nubia. These pharaohs spent time beautifying and protecting Egypt. Pharaohs have occasional meetings with government officials to discuss problems in order to keep an orderly society. The pharaohs were also in charge of the military and had guards on the watch to keep their civilization safe.

Social Structure

The social pyramid is used to describe the social structure of Egypt. The pyramid shows where a person stands in society. At the top of the pyramid is the pharaoh. The pharaoh is seen as the most important person in Egypt's society. The pharaoh is believed to be a living god on Earth, therefore is greatly worshipped. The pharaoh space is very small because there is only one pharaoh. Next on the social pyramid is government officials. This class included the vizier who advise the pharaoh, and carry out their commands, the chief treasurer who oversaw the government's taxes, and collects taxes, and the general of the armies who advise the pharaoh about war and national security, and help make alliances with other civilizations. After government officials comes the priests. Priests usually do common things such as giving advice and performing healings, but some priests give advice to the pharaoh and oversee religious ceremonies. Next is the scribes. Scribes serve as writers and record keepers. Below the scribes are the artisans. The artisans create beautiful works of art. The lowest class is the peasants. The peasants grow crops and help build monuments.


  1. One connection between my life and the Egyptian life is that we both worship a god. Today most Americans may worship only one god while the Egyptians worship many, but both have the same idea behind them.
  2. Another connection is that we both have rulers. Americans have presidents and Egyptians have pharaohs. Both presidents and pharaohs are rulers.
  3. A third connection is that both the Egyptian and Americans today farm. We both depend on farming as a stable food supply.

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