What Is a chemical bond?
-It's the process in which different atoms have an attraction of opposite charges between the nuclei and the electrons in the outermost shell, which holds the different atoms together.
~The 3 types of chemical bonding are: ionic bond, covalent bond, and metallic bond.
-It also lowers the atom's high potential energy by forming bonds to gain more stability
-Each atom wants to be stable with 8 valence electrons (noble gas configuration) by forming bonds (gaining, losing, or sharing electrons)
-Exceptions are boron forms with only 6 valence electrons, in order to be stable, and some elements exceed more than 8 valence electrons, which includes the d orbital.
*NOBLE GASES ARE STABLE!!!!*
Electronegativity Difference and Percent IOnic CHaracter of Bond Type
-a type of chemical bond that forms when the attraction of two oppositely charged atoms are involved (a metal ion and a nonmetal ion) and react.
~Metals tend to LOSE an electron in order to reach noble gas configuration. When an atom loses an electron, the atom becomes positive. This is called a cation.
~Nonmetals usually GAIN an electron so they can gain stability of being a noble gas. When an atom gains an electron, they become negative. This is called an anion.
-It's the complete transference of valence electrons, by gaining or losing outer shell electrons, between different atoms.
- Electronegativity difference: 1.7-3.3
- % ionic character: 50%-100%
- Properties of an Ionic Bond:
~Dissolves in water
~ High melting point; does not melt or hard to melt
~ Does not produce electricity as a solid
~Produce electricity as a liquid and when dissolved in water
-Examples of Ionic Bonds: NaCl, LiF, BeO
-a type of chemical bond that forms when two nonmetal atoms are attracted
-a bond that allows different atoms to share electrons
-2 Types of Covalent Bonds
~Non-polar Covalent Bond
> Equal/even sharing of electrons and charge between the atoms
> Electronegativity difference: 0.0-0.3
> % ionic character: 0%-5%
~Polar Covalent Bond
> unequal/uneven sharing of electrons and charge between the atoms
> Electronegativity difference: 0.3-1.7
> % ionic character: 5%-50%
- Properties of a Covalent Bond:
~MOST/SOME compounds dissolve in water
~ low melting point; easy to melt
~Doesn't produce any electricity as solid, liquid, or when dissolved in water
-Examples of Covalent Bonds: H2, NH3, H2O
-a type of chemical bond that forms when two metal atoms react
-contains electrons that are delocalized; electrons move freely within the metal atom--- allows atom to have more conductivity, malleability, and ductility
-Has a surrounding sea of electrons which form the crystal lattice
- semi-vacant d and p orbitals forms overlapping orbitals
- Properties of a Metallic Bond:
~ not soluble in water
~ does produce electricity as a solid, liquid, and when dissolved in water
~high melting point; does not melt or is hard to melt
-Examples of Metallic Bonds: Copper, Aluminum, Bronze