Chemical Bonds

What Is a chemical bond?

-It's the process in which different atoms have an attraction of opposite charges between the nuclei and the electrons in the outermost shell, which holds the different atoms together.  

       ~The 3 types of chemical bonding are: ionic bond, covalent bond, and metallic bond.

-It also lowers the atom's high potential energy by forming bonds to gain more stability

Octet Rule

-Each atom wants to be stable with 8 valence electrons (noble gas configuration) by forming bonds (gaining, losing, or  sharing electrons)

-Exceptions are boron forms with only 6 valence electrons,  in order to be stable, and some elements exceed more than 8 valence electrons, which includes the d orbital.


Electronegativity Difference and Percent IOnic CHaracter of Bond Type

Ionic bonds

-a type of chemical bond that forms when the attraction of two oppositely charged atoms are involved (a metal ion and a nonmetal ion) and react.

        ~Metals tend to LOSE an electron in order to reach noble gas configuration. When an atom loses an electron, the atom becomes positive. This is called a cation.

        ~Nonmetals usually GAIN an electron so they can gain stability of being a noble gas. When an atom gains an electron, they become negative. This is called an anion.

    -It's the complete transference of valence electrons, by gaining or losing outer shell electrons, between different atoms.

    - Electronegativity difference: 1.7-3.3

    - % ionic character: 50%-100%

    - Properties of an Ionic Bond:

        ~Dissolves in water

        ~ High melting point; does not melt or hard to melt

        ~ Does not produce electricity as a solid

        ~Produce electricity as a liquid and when dissolved in water

        ~crystallized appearance

     -Examples of Ionic Bonds: NaCl, LiF, BeO

Covalent Bond

-a type of chemical bond that forms when two nonmetal atoms are attracted

    -a bond that allows different atoms to share electrons

    -2 Types of Covalent Bonds

        ~Non-polar Covalent Bond

             > Equal/even sharing of electrons and charge between the atoms

             > Electronegativity difference: 0.0-0.3

             > % ionic character: 0%-5%

        ~Polar Covalent Bond

             > unequal/uneven sharing of electrons and charge between the atoms

             > Electronegativity difference: 0.3-1.7

             > % ionic character: 5%-50%

    - Properties of a Covalent Bond:

        ~MOST/SOME compounds dissolve in water

        ~ low melting point; easy to melt

        ~Doesn't produce any electricity as solid, liquid, or when dissolved in water

      -Examples of Covalent Bonds: H2, NH3, H2O

Metallic Bond

    -a type of chemical bond that forms when two metal atoms react

    -contains electrons that are delocalized; electrons move freely within the metal atom--- allows atom to have more conductivity, malleability, and ductility

    -Has a surrounding sea of electrons which form the crystal lattice

    - semi-vacant d and p orbitals forms overlapping orbitals

    - Properties of a Metallic Bond:

       ~Shiny appearance

       ~ not soluble in water

       ~ does produce electricity as a solid, liquid, and when dissolved in water

       ~malleable, ductile

       ~high melting point; does not melt or is hard to melt

    -Examples of Metallic Bonds: Copper, Aluminum, Bronze

Comment Stream

2 years ago

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