Ancient Egypt was divided into two parts of land, the black land, and the red land. The black land was fertile land. They used that land for growing their crops. That was the only land that could be farmed on because rich soil that was put there after the Nile flooded.
The red land was the barren desert that protected the Egyptians on two sides. The desert separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies. They also provided them with metals and stones.
Stable Food Supply
The ancient Egyptians grew their crops near the Nile river where the rich soil was good for their crops. They grew the following crops: barley to make beer, wheat for bread, onions, cucumbers, flax to make into linen. The ancients Egyptians main drink was beer made from barley. They had clay ovens to cook. They used dishes made out of clay.
The Ancient Egyptians government was ruled first and for most by the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh was also the leader of government and religion. He couldn't run it by him self so he had different kinds of rulers below him that had different jobs.
Ramses 11 - he was the gratest pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. He was a great military leader who entered one of the first major peace treaties in history with the Hittites. He was also a great builder, he rebuilt many of the temples in Egypt. They also built many new structures as well.
Hatshepsut - she was the first lady Pharaoh. She was regent for her son, but she took over the power. She dressed just like a Pharaoh to reinforce her power, she also wore a crown and ceremonial bread. Many people said she was the best women Pharaoh, but one of the gratest pharaoh in history of Egypt.
The Temple of Hatshepsut
Khufu - he was best known for building the famous pyramid. He helped establish the Pharaoh as a central authority, for example he kept strict control over Egyptains food supply. He oversaw the harvest and storage of extra grain. He also controlled a large network of government officals who carried his laws. He emphasized his supreme power by declaring himself a god.
Senusret - he was a strong leader who ruled a stable unified Egypt. The arts, literature, and architecture flourished during his region. The arts thrived under his rule. Some of the gratest work in Egyptian literature was written during Senusret region.
They kept an orderly society and protected their civilization. The pharaoh was the supreme leader of government and religion. So the people of the society trusted him and his rulers that ruled the laws with common sence.
Pharaoh - ruler of Egypt.
Government officials - their job was to assist the pharaoh in his or her role as supreme leader of Egypt.
Priests - they were highly respected in society. A lot of them served under the pharaoh. They were considered the highest rank of priests.
Scribes - they were the official writers of Egypt and record keepers. They were highly respected and well paid. Most of them worked for the priests, government or nobles.
Artisans - they were skilled laborers who created some of the most beautiful art objects in Ancient Egypt. They were not respected by the higher classes.
Peasants - they were lowest and the largest class on the social pyramid. They were unskilled labors, but the people depended on their work. They grew the crops that supplied every one with food. When they weren't working they helped build the monuments like pyramid.
The pyramid showed the positions of social classes according to their status in society.
The gods that the Egyptians worshiped were Ra, Anubis, Osiris, and Horus.
Ra - he was the sun god and the most important god to the ancient Egyptians. He was shown as a man with a hawk head and a headdress with a sun disk. At one point him and god Amun combined and made an even more powerful god. Ra was the supreme ruler of the gods.
Anubis - he was shown as a jakal or wild dog. He was the god of the funerals and death. He was painted on tombs to protect the dead. He was also supervised embalming and was belived to have embalmed Osiris.
Osiris - he was the ruler of the under world and god of the dead. He was the husband to Iris and father to Horus. He was drawn as a mummified man with a feathered head dress. His brother Seth killed him because he wanted to be king.
Horus - he was the god of the sky. He was the son of Osiris and Iris. He was drawn as a man with a head of a hawk. The ruler of the Egyptians, the pharaoh was thought to be the living version of Horus. This way the pharaoh was the leader of the Egyptians religion and the peoples reppesentative to the gods.
The Egyptians belived that their was an after life. They thought people had two parts a Ka and a Ba. A Ka was life force that you only had when you were alive. A Ba was more like a soul. If your Ka and Ba could be united In the after world then the person would live in the after life. One of the most important parts was their body would have to be preserved for it to happen. This is why they used mummification to presurve the dead.
Religious belifes were important to the Egyptians because they used religion to rule the land.
Arts and Architecture
Most of the art work created by ancient Egyptians had to do with their religion. Most of the artwork was blue, black, red, green, and gold in their paintings. They would fill the tombs of the Pharaohs with paintings and sculptures. Much of the artwork was there to help the Pharaohs in the after life. Temples were another popular place for art. The temples often held large statues of their gods as well as many paintings on the walls. The Sphinx statue was over 60 feet tall and 240 feet long.
The Egyptians invented things like toothpaste, make up, medicine, and ships to make their life easier.
Toothpaste - the Egyptians made toothpaste because their bread had so much grit and sand in it, so they had lots of prblems with their teeth. They made the toothpaste to take better care of their teeth. They made their toothpaste with ashes, eggshells, and grounded up hooves ears to make their toothpaste.
Make up - all the Egyptians wore make up even the men. They made dark eye make up called kohi from soot and other materials. Their make up was a fashon statement. The make up did not protect their skin from the hot sun.
Medicine - they had lots of medicine and a lot of cures. They had a lot of strange medicine though. They used honey and human brains to help cure eye infections. They used a cooked mouse to helped cure coughs. A lot of their medicine was spells to ward off the evil spirits that were making them sick.
Ship Building - with the Nile river being such a big part of their life. Building ships was a major part of their lives. They first built small ships from papyrus reeds. Later they built larger ships from ceder wood from Lebanon.
The Ancient Egyptians form of writing was Hieroglyphics. They started using this form of writing early as 3000 B.C. It was a very complicated way of writing. Their was over 1000 symbols. Their writing represented sounds and entire words. Their writing could also go in any direction right to left, left to right, top to bottom. They could figure out what way the writing would go by the symbols.
They usally wrote on walls or tables. But they also wrote on paper called papyrus. They made the papyrus paper by first using stripes from the inner stem of the papyrus. Second they would make two kinds of stripes a horizontal one and a vertical one. Third they would cover it with a linen cloth and apply presshre with a mallet or stones.
In 1799 a French solider found a stone in city Rosetta. It had the same message written in greek and hieroglyphics. It translated what hieroglyphics sad and used to help translate other hieroglyphics as well.
Connections to life Today
In conclusion the eight categories listed above are still alive today in Egypt as they were in ancient times. The Egyptians value their heritage and culture, and use what has been past on by generations two live as lead their lives today. Their religious beliefs are just as strong today as in ancient Egypt. They still use religion as part of their government to rule their country.