Continuity & Change in the United States 1998-2015

Thesis: Politics, American culture, and America's role have lead to many changes in the United States in the past seventeen years. Therefore, the events that have occurred in the last seventeen years have caused many changes on the United States as well as across the world.

Creation of Google 1998



Worlds top brands/image/Technology/1998-birth

HIPP: Many companies were furthering the technology of our nation.  Prior to Google windows released Windows 98.  Then after google was created apple released information about their first iMac.  The purpose of this is to show how important the creation of google was and how much it would better lives.

Reflection: This is technology because google is an important part of our technological world today.  Now some people rely on Google, it has everything you could possibly wonder.  In 1998 this probably wasn't projected of the release of Google, but because of it's great success this is a very significant future company.  This is important to historians because without it we couldn't search the entire internet with a key word and find thousands of results.

9/11 2001


It kept getting worse.

The horror arrived in episodic bursts of chilling disbelief, signified first by trembling floors, sharp eruptions, cracked windows. There was the actual unfathomable realization of a gaping, flaming hole in first one of the tall towers, and then the same thing all over again in its twin. There was the merciless sight of bodies helplessly tumbling out, some of them in flames.

Finally, the mighty towers themselves were reduced to nothing. Dense plumes of smoke raced through the downtown avenues, coursing between the buildings, shaped like tornadoes on their sides.

Every sound was cause for alarm. A plane appeared overhead. Was another one coming? No, it was a fighter jet. But was it friend or enemy? People scrambled for their lives, but they didn't know where to go. Should they go north, south, east, west? Stay outside, go indoors? People hid beneath cars and each other. Some contemplated jumping into the river.

For those trying to flee the very epicenter of the collapsing World Trade Center towers, the most horrid thought of all finally dawned on them: nowhere was safe.

For several panic-stricken hours yesterday morning, people in Lower Manhattan witnessed the inexpressible, the incomprehensible, the unthinkable. ''I don't know what the gates of hell look like, but it's got to be like this,'' said John Maloney, a security director for an Internet firm in the trade center. ''I'm a combat veteran, Vietnam, and I never saw anything like this.''

The first warnings were small ones. Blocks away, Jim Farmer, a film composer, was having breakfast at a small restaurant on West Broadway. He heard the sound of a jet. An odd sound -- too loud, it seemed, to be normal. Then he noticed: ''All the pigeons in the street flew up.''

It was the people outside, on the sidewalk, who saw the beginning. At 8:45, David Blackford was walking toward work in a downtown building. He heard a jet engine and glanced up. ''I saw this plane screaming overhead,'' he said. ''I thought it was too low. I thought it wasn't going to clear the tower.''

Within moments, his fears were confirmed. The plane slammed into the north face of 1 World Trade Center. As he watched, he said, ''You could see the concussion move up the building.''

''It was a large plane flying low,'' said Robert Pachino, another witness. ''There was no engine trouble. He didn't try to maneuver. This plane was on a mission.''

Dark spots fell from the sides of the buildings, and at first it wasn't clear what they were. Sarah Sampino, who worked across the street, noticed black smoke outside and went to the window. ''We saw bodies flying out of the windows,'' she said. ''It was the 85th floor. I used to work on that floor.''

James Wang, 21, a photography student snapping pictures of people doing tai chi at a nearby park, looked up and saw people high in the north tower. They seemed like tiny figurines, and he didn't know if they were awaiting rescue or merely looking out. ''They were standing up there,'' he said. ''And they jumped. One woman, her dress was billowing out.''

Inside the towers, people felt it without knowing what it was. At about 15 minutes to 9, Anne Prosser, 29, rode the elevator to the 90th floor of Tower 1, where her global banking office was. As the doors opened, she heard what seemed like an explosion. She didn't know it, but the first plane had just hit several floors above her.

''I got thrown to the ground before I got to our suite,'' she said. ''I crawled inside. Not everybody was at work.'' She said she tried to leave but there was so much debris in the air she couldn't breathe. Port Authority rescuers finally steered her to a stairway.

Tim Lingenfelder, 36, an office manager at a small investment banking firm, was sitting before his computer terminal on the 52nd floor of Tower 1. He had just sent an e-mail to his sister in Minnesota. Nothing special -- just how was she and what he had had for breakfast.

The windows rattled. He heard a loud noise. The entire building shook. He looked up. Outside the windows, he noticed rubble falling, and he thought, ''That can't be from here.''

Only two others were at work, a father and son who were both bond traders. They said they had better get out. They hurried to the stairs and, along with flocks of others, began their descent.

''When I got to the 18th floor, my cell phone rang,'' Mr. Lingenfelder said. ''It was my sister. She said a plane had hit and to get out now.''

On the 32nd floor, the entourage was stuck for about 20 minutes because of smoke. Everyone ducked into offices on the floor to catch their breath. Mr. Lingenfelder peered out the window and saw a body lying on the roof of the hotel.

They returned to the stairs and made it out onto the plaza. Rubble and debris was all around. On the street there was endless paper and unmatched shoes.

John Cerqueira, 22, and Mike Ben Fanter, 36, were working on the 81st floor of 1 World Trade Center when they felt the collision. ''People were freaking out,'' said Mr. Fanter, a sales manager. ''I tried to get them in the center of the office. About 40 people. I led them to the hall down the steps.''

New York Times



HIPP: Congress passes the aviation security bill requiring that all airport screeners would undergo criminal background checks and would have to be U.S. citizens.  The audience of this article was Americans because this event absolutely stunned and devastated the nation.

Reflection: This is important to America in the world because it was terrorism.  The US has since then improved airport security greatly.  This would have helped because airports keep an eye out for suspicious behavior and every personal is thoroughly checked.  Historians find this important because the security in airports continues to improve due solely to this event.

Apple releases Itunes 2001

Mac Users Raving About Apple’s New Jukebox Software for Managing Digital Music & Burning Custom CDs

CUPERTINO, California—January 16, 2001—Apple® today announced that downloads of iTunes, the world’s coolest and easiest to use “jukebox” software, have topped 275,000 in the first week since it was made available to Mac® users as a free download

“iTunes is an amazing new application from Apple that is simply the best way to manage digital music and burn custom CDs,” said Steve Jobs, Apple’s CEO. “With more than 275,000 copies downloaded, it’s clear that iTunes is a huge hit with Mac users.”

Exclusively for the Mac, iTunes lets users import songs from their favorite CDs; compress them into the popular MP3 format and store them on their computer’s hard drive; organize their music using powerful searching, browsing and play list features; listen to hundreds of Internet radio stations; watch stunning visualizations on the computer screen; and create custom music CDs on Apple’s new Power Mac™ G4s with CD-RW drives.

iTunes is available as a free download from for use with Macintosh systems introduced since August 1998. iTunes is also available automatically to all iTools users for simple drag and drop downloading. Mac OS™ 9.0.4 or Mac OS 9.1 is required for running iTunes.

Apple ignited the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with the Apple II and reinvented the personal computer in the 1980s with the Macintosh. Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.

Lynn Fox & Alicia Awbrey (apple press employees)

January 16, 2001

iTunes Downloads Top 275,000 in First Week/Manuscript & Archival Material/pop culture/Elementary school

HIPP: The purpose is to inform people of Apple's great take off with Itunes and show how successful it is.

Reflection: This is important because Itunes is all over the world and it originated in the US.  They are spreading the music culture all over with all types of music.  This app has spread pop culture all over the world.  This is important to historians because they will see how music connected the US to many other countries.

Justin Bieber 2010

HIPP:    Justin Bieber was discovered in 2008 on you tube from Canada.  He released the album My World in 2010.  The purpose of this is to show his music has reached people all over the world.

Reflection: This connects to popular culture.  That is because his album topped charts all over the world.  This will be important to historians because it shows people all over the world can admire US culture.

Justin Bieber

March 19, 2010

MY WORLD 2.0/Recording/pop culture/middle school

Colorado Marijuana Legalization 2012

HIPP: Obama entered his second term as president.  The purpose of this was to show the actions taken on marijuana.  The government is still very against dispensaries and it will still be illegal to sell on the streets.

Reflection: This connects to politics and power because the government is still against it.  The government still has a say against the dispensaries.  But Colorado law officials have very strong points with a potential billion dollar business.  This is important to historians because at some point in the early future marijuana will be legal all over the country.

ABC news

November 7, 2012

Marijuana legalized in Colorado, what's next?/Recordings/politics and power/middle school

Obama Care 2014

Keith Hughes

October 24, 2013

ObamaCare for Dummies: The Affordable Care Act Explained/Visual/politics and  power/high school

HIPP: The poverty level is very high at this time and the economy is coming up from a trough.  The purpose is to give people in poverty affordable health insurance.

Reflection: This supports politics and power because Obama put this in tact to better the nation.  Historians will take note of this because this could have greatly improved our nation or also failed.  Obama had a lot of grief from this but it could turn around.

PS4 2014 technology Manuscript



PS4 picture/Manuscript/Technology/high school

HIPP: Playstation is on its fourth system.  The intended audience is teenagers and adults.

Reflection: I have played playstation and like it and it shows how technology is still advancing today.  Historians will look back and say when there is a PS9 and  think this was nothing.  Therefore technology is still going to get better.

Kim Jong Un 2015

Millions of Internet users have paid almost six dollars each to watch an online movie called “The Interview.”The film has deeply angered North Korea. It also hassled many Americans to debate what actions to take when facing threats to free expression.

The controversial film is a product of Sony Pictures of Burbank, California. In the movie, two American journalists get a chance to meet with North Korean President Kim Jong Un. The Central Intelligence

Agency asks the two to kill Mr. Kim, and they agree.

The Americans join forces with a woman officer in the Korean People’s Army and shoot down the president’s helicopter. This takes place just as he is preparing to launch nuclear missiles.

Some people criticize the film for plotting the violent death of a government leader. Others have said the film’s story line and situations are not at all serious. They say they are meant only to be funny. Still others praise “The Interview” because it shows the freedom of expression that American movie makers enjoy.

The North Korean government was not pleased when it learned about the film. The government began to object publicly last June, months before “The Interview” was to open in theaters. North Korea called the movie “an act of war.” It threatened what it called “merciless” reaction.

In November, Sony Pictures suffered a major cyber attack. A group calling itself “Guardians of Peace” claimed responsibility for stealing all kinds of material from Sony’s computers. Movies were released online before their planned openings in theaters. The company lost millions of dollars.

The attackers also made public medical records of Sony employees and e-mails insulting movie stars. Altogether, the cyber attack has been a financial and public relations disaster for the movie maker.

The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation worked to solve the mystery of the attack. It blamed North Korean hackers. But North Korea denied any involvement.

An intelligence group called Norse also investigated. It says at least one former Sony Pictures employee was responsible. The employee reportedly was angry after being dismissed by Sony. Both the company and the federal agency continue to say they have found the true attacker.

Whoever was responsible, on Dec. 16th Sony cancelled the planned release of “The Interview.” It said most major theaters were refusing to show the film during the winter holiday season. The theaters noted threats made to their customers. Some said they would not show the movie at any time.

But a number of filmmakers, actors and politicians objected to the cancellation. Pressure built for Sony Pictures to release the movie. Many people wanted the company to show that threats could not suppress free expression.

President Barack Obama also offered his opinion on the issue. He said he sympathized with Sony’s position. But he said the cancellation could have the effect of interfering with freedom of expression.

On December 23rd, Sony officials announced a limited release of the film.They said chosen movie theaters in the United States would show the movie on Christmas Day.  Mr. Obama has not said if he watched the movie. But he praised its release.

In North Korea, it would be hard for many people to see “The Interview” even if they wanted to. The Internet is highly restricted in the country. Many people could not pay to watch the film. And expert observers say those North Koreans who do watch it probably would be deeply offended and confused.

On a visit to Pyongyang in 2013, VOA reporter Steve Herman spoke with several North Koreans. He says they appeared to believe their state-operated media and education system. He says the people seemed to think that the U.S. and its allies want to harm North Korean socialism and development.

Other observers say it would be hard for North Koreans to accept “The Interview” for what it was meant to be – just a funny movie.

But could the film plant seeds of doubt about the North Korean government among North Korean citizens? Observers wonder if the freedom demonstrated in the movie could lead some North Koreans to question the tight controls of life in their country.

Steve Herman

January 2, 2015

'The Interview' Raises Tension between US, North Korea/Texts/america in the world/Current

HIPP: With ISIS up rises another country with problems is the last thing the US needed.  The audience of this event is US citizens because of the fact North Korea was outraged and could attack any part at anytime.

Reflection: This relates to america in the worldbn because North Korea had threatened the US.  I saw this movie and don't understand what was so offensive to Kim Jong Un.  This is important to historians because they may have to worry about another movie offending a country.  Although this one wasn't bad enough to begin a war another could be.

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