Civil Rights Timeline
1954 Brown v. Board of Education
A. In 1954 the Supreme Court declared separate schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
B. Oliver and Linda Brown, Supreme Court, African Americans, and whites.
C. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in educational facilities was unconstitutional.
1954-1956 Boycott of segregated bus systems
A. In the city of Montgomery, Alabama all African Americans refused to ride the city bus.
B. African Americans in Montgomery
C. Part of the demands of the boycott was that if African Americans were going to ride the bus there would be no more segregation.
1957 Integration of Central High School
A. Nine African American students are escorted into Central High School after NAACP lawyers win a federal district court injunction to prevent the governing from blocking the students’ entry. After a white mob gathered, Martin Luther King wrote a letter to President Eisenhower to gain entrance.
B. Nine African American students, Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, NAACP, President Eisenhower, and Martin Luther King.
C. These nine African American students were the only to attend Central High School after 517 other African American students weren't able to or chose not to. Long extensions were made so these nine students could attend their first day at Central High School after segregation of school laws became unconstitutional.
1960 First Lunch Counter sit in
A. Four college students went to a restaurant and was refused service and was asked to leave. The four boys didn't move they sat there for two days till the cops came
B. Four African Americans and the employs of the restaurant
C. By having this protest and having it shown throughout the U.S. it help stop segregation in restaurants
1961 Black students and civil rights workers sit in white section of bus station
A. On may 4th 1961 a group of African Americans and civil right workers had a “freedom ride”, it was a series of bus trips throughout the south to protest segregation in interstate bus terminus
B. 13 African Americans and civil rights activist
C. This event help lead up to ending segregation on buses
1962 Integration of the university of mississippi
A. An African American named James Meredith enrolls at the University of Mississippi and riots break out leaving two dead and many injured. 31,000 National Guardsmen and federal forces were called to intervene.
B. James Meredith, University of Mississippi, and southern segregationists.
C. Meredith was allowed to register and became the first African American to graduate from Mississippi University in August 1963.
1963 Murder of NAACP leader medgar evers
A. Medgar Evers was a civil rights activist and received many death threats weeks before his death. His support for Clyde Kennard and public investigations into the murder of Emmett Till made him vulnerable to attack.
B. Medgar Evers, Byron De La Beckwith, and KKK
C. Jackson was buried with military honors and many leaders condemned the killing publicly. Bryan De La Beckwith would be found guilty after committing many murders.
1963 Campaign to desegregate city four girls killed in bombing of church
A. On september 15th 1963 a white man was seen putting a box on the church stairs outside of Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, killing four young girls.
B. Four girls- Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley, Denise McNair. The man who put the bomb on the stairs was Robert Chambliss. Also 23 people who were hurt by the blast of the bomb.
C. The bombing of the church was due to the integration of the Alabama school system the incident drew international attention and public outrage.
1964 Desegregation campaign collusion of city police and KKK exposed
A. Martin Luther King Jr. launched a campaign for St. Augustine supporting the small local movement to end racial discrimination in the nation’s oldest city. King experienced violent outbursts by the Klan while in St. Augustine.
B. KKK, MLK, and the city police
C. This help end segregation
1964 Murder of three civil rights workers
A. They were beat by the KKK after being arrested for helping register African Americans to vote.
B. Three civil rights workers (James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner), and the KKK.
C. The death of the three workers angered many and after investigation, 18 individuals were charged with civil rights violations.
1965 March for voting rights to montgomery
A. On March 7th, known as bloody Sunday, a march from Selma to Montgomery Alabama for equal voting rights. The state troops stood on the other side of the bridge blocking their non-violent march but ended up violent when the officers started to beat the protester, this aired all over the U.S for everyone to see.
B. Everyone who was protesting, all of the cops who were there.
C. It opened a lot of peoples eye all over the U.S. on how bad we were treating African Americans. They just wanted to have equal voting rights by having a non-violent protest and the state troops made it otherwise.
1968 Murder of MLK
A. April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. is shot on the balcony of Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. King’s death queued outbreaks of racial violence resulting in more than 40 deaths and property damage in over 100 American cities.
B. Martin Luther King Jr. and James Earl Ray (shooter)
C. Martin Luther King Jr. was a highly known civil rights leader and his death affected many. Many reacted to his death causing outbreaks of racial violence and damage in 100 American cities.