Janissaries- A member of the Turkish infantry forming the Sultan's guard between the 14th and 19th centuries.
Istanbul- the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Esfahan- (Esfahan's) wealth originated in its role as a chief way station along the trans-Asia trade route, but trade dwindled as the cheaper sea routes increased in popularity for transporting commodities between Asia and Europe.
Sufism- the mystical system of the Sufis.
Minarets- A tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer.
Calligraphy- Decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering.