Crystals

How to make crystals?

Method
have to make crystals?

Day One - Tuesday

Place 25mg of potash alum in a beaker and add 17oml of hot water. Stir the
mixture until the crystals have dissolved. Filter the warm solution through a
filter funnel (in which filter paper has been inserted) into another clean
beaker. Cover the beaker of solution with the watch glass or fresh filter paper
and set aside in a cool sheltered place and allow it to stand undisturbed
overnight. The first beaker and funnel can be washed and dried and the residue
and the filter paper used for filtration should be discarded.

Day Two - Wednesday

Observe the beaker of solution. The bottom should be covered with a layer of
small crystals. If nothing has happened, the solution can be 'seeded' by adding
a crystal from the original alum. Alternatively, crystal growth may also induced
by scratching the bottom of the beaker with a stirring rod. If crystals have
started forming, start session three.

Day Three - Thursday

Carefully decant the clear solution above the crystals into a clean beaker
and set it aside for later, leaving the crystals behind in the other beaker. Let
it stand overnight again and observe the formation of the crystals.

Photo 1: Place 25mg of potash alum in a beaker and add 17oml of hot water. Stir the
mixture until the crystals have dissolved.

Photo 2: Filter the warm solution through a
filter funnel (in which filter paper has been inserted) into another clean
beaker.

Photo 3: Cover the beaker of solution with the watch glass or fresh filter paper
and set aside in a cool sheltered place and allow it to stand undisturbed
overnight. This is to do after the whole solution has been filtered into the beaker.

(Directions and pictures to show how to make crystals)

What is a crystal?

Crystals are a solid that is formed that is made up of regular repeated pattern of molecules connecting together.

Substances that can be used to make crystals are?

Chrome Alum Crystal- Potassium chromium sulphate and boiling water
Epsom Salt Crystal Needles- Epsom salt and hot tap water.
Borax Crystals- Borax and boiling water.

Some examples of crystals in nature and household items can be used to make crystals from are?

Common crystals in nature include snowflakes and diamonds. Crystals that are items in your household are items such as table salt. To make crystals in other ways you can use sugar, cotton thread, Vaseline, ammonia, water etc.

The process of crystal growth

The crystal growth is the process of crystallization. The growth of a crystal is the diffusion of molecules. Which is the crystallizing substance of the surface of the crystal. Diffusion is the molecules over the crystal surface that has positions on the surface. The combination of molecules into the surface are positioned and diffused from the heat, away from the surface.

Explain how crystals can grow in different shapes and sizes.

This depends on 2 factors: The internal symmetry of the crystal, and the relative growth rates along the various directions in the crystal.

Outline
A few different types of crystals.

There is the Covalent Crystals: It is a crystal which contains real chemicals between the atoms in the crystal. It is just like a crystal with one big molecule.

A Metallic Crystals: It is an Individual metal atom which sits on a lattice sites. The outer electrons from the atoms are capable to flow around the lattice. The Metallic crystals usually have high melting points and masses.

Ionic Crystals: It is a crystal which the individual atoms doesn’t
have a electrons pairs between atoms. But it is held together by electrostatic
forces.

What effect do crystals have on light travelling through them? (relate to
reflection, refraction, dispersion and diffraction)

Crystals behaves like a 3-dimensional diffraction grating. This gives rise to both constructive and destructive interference that effects in the diffraction pattern, such that it appears on the indicator as a series of separate spots which are known as
reflections. The reflections contains information on all of the atoms in the
structure and equally each atom gives the power of each
reflection.

What are the optimum conditions for crystal growth?
Room temperature in an airtight container. Make sure
there are no vibrations because it will slow down or stop the process of crystal
growth.

MSDS SAFETY TEMPLATE

Game

Conclusion

Final Questions:

My crystals grow by leaving the solution in an area where it
is in closed such as the cupboard. The crystals grow by the solution reacting
and producing crystals. My crystals have grown into small groups around the
jar.

WEEK Liquid levels Crystal size
1
6.2 cm none (very small)

2 2.5 cm 1.4 cm

The artwork demonstrates structure to the crystals. It is showing how the crystals are bumpy and shiny. The crystals can become different shapes and sizes but can also be flat as well.

Bibliography
What is a Crystal? . (1998-2011). Retrieved from www.chemistry.co:
http://www.chemistry.co.nz/crystals_defined.htm

Crystal growth. (2013, 09 29). Retrieved from wikipedia.org:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_growth

Anne Marie Helmenstine, P. (2013). Crystal Chemicals. Retrieved from
chemistry.about.com:
http://chemistry.about.com/od/growingcrystals/a/Crystal-Chemicals.htm

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