Biotic Factors

Biotic Factors- Living factors in an ecosystem.

Animals                Plants

-Jellyfish                                   -Kelp
-Whale                                       -Seaweed
-Dolphin                                    -Phytoplankton
-Coral                                         -Coralline Algae
-Starfish                                    -Sea Grass
-Great White Shark                -Red Algae                 
-Crab                                           -Limu Moui

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic Factors- Non-living factors in an ecosystem.
-Hot and Cold Temp. of Water

Carrying Capacity and Changes in the Population

  Carrying Capacity- refers to the balance between the availability of habitat components and the numbers of animals the habitat can support.

  Factors Needed in Order to Survive
- water, food, shelter, and area/space.

  Seals population changes over time due to availability of habitat resources because if there is a decrease or not enough the population will decrease and if there is an increase in habitat resources the population will increase and thrive.

Limiting Factors and Predator/Prey Relationships

  Limiting Factors- anything that affects the survival of an organism in an ecosystem.

-Environmental Pollution
-Water Pressure
-Nutrients Availability

  A shark and a seal are a predator/prey. Sharks hunt down their food, seals, by waiting for the precis time then striking them unexpectedly. It is easier for a shark to attack, with their dark backs, at night time but when the sun is shining they loose the element of surprise. Also the fish population is decreasing because of Fishermens and fish are seals main food source. Eventually the seal population will decrease making it a limiting factor for sharks. Limiting factors affect the predator/prey relationship because the less limiting factors there are, the more the seal population decreases which means less food for the sharks. But the more factors, the more seals there are, the more of a food source sharks have.

Energy Roles

  Energy Roles- They are determined by how the organism gains energy and how it  interacts with other living things in its ecosystem.
They are determined by how the organism gains energy and how it interacts with other living things in its ecosystem.

-Sea Grass
-Red Algae

  Consumers- Organisms that do not make their own food; they feed on other organisms (plants and animals). All animals are consumers.

Animals that only eat producers.  

-Parrot Fish
-Japanese Angelfish

  Omnivores- Animal that eat both producers and consumers.

-Blue Crabs
-Salt Water Lobsters
-Sea Otters
-Sea Turtles

  Carnivores- Animals that rely on other consumers for food.

-Killer Whales
-Blue Whale
-Sea Lions

  Scavengers- Animals that eat the leftover food from other consumers.

--Blue Hake
-Marine Eels
-Star Fish

  Decomposers- Organisms that break down waste and dead organisms and return the nutrients back to the environment.


-Sea Weed
-Sea Urchins
-Hag Fish

  All organisms receive energy from the level below them. The decomposers receive their energy from the dead material of the consumers. Consumers receive their energy from from other consumers or producers. Producers receive their energy from the sun which is the main source if energy.
  Producers are vital to the ecosystem because they receive their energy from the main source, the sun. They then provide energy that fuels the rest of the ecosystem.

Food Chains and Food Webs

  Food webs are more realistic than food chains because a food chain shows one possibility with one straight line but a food web shows multiple possibilities with intertwined lines making it more rational.

  If the Baleen Whale population was taken out of this food web then the Krill population would grow because they would have lost one of their predators, causing the Krill's prey to decrease in population. The Smaller Toothed Whales would have lost one of their prey and decrease in population, causing their preys population to increase.

Trophic Levels and Energy Pyramids

  Using a pyramid instead of another shape lets us visualize the amount of energy that moves from one trophic level to the next. As you move further up the pyramid, the energy is decreasing and so is the survival of organisms. Also in a pyramid the base starts out large but then gets smaller and smaller until it meets at one point. The pyramid is an excellent way to show the flow of energy moving to the trophic levels.

  Producers are at the base (the largest part), because there is more energy. There is more energy because the producers provide the energy for the rest of the ecosystem; the survival of organisms is greatest at the base.
Top predators are in the smallest level because there is less energy there. 90% of energy is being used up by life processes or removed as heat and 10% is transferred. This means that the energy availability decreases as it moves up the pyramid, resulting in the survival of organisms at the top is very small.


                                                                Sun's energy
                                                                        l     l
                                                                       \/    \/

CO2 + H20 -----> C6H12O6 + O2

                                 Carbon     Water   Chlorophyll     Sugars          Oxygen

  What is needed for photosynthesis is water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide. Glucose {sugar} and oxygen are produced by photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, the sun's radiant energy transforms into chemical energy that the plant uses to survive.


  Tropisms- turning or being movement of an organism toward or away from an
external stimulus, such as light, heat, or gravity.

  Some examples of tropism in the ocean are phototropism, geotropism, and thermotropism. Phototropism is the way it reacts to the sunlight, geotropism is
the way grows with the force of gravity, and thermotropism is movement or growth of a plant or sessile animal towards, or away from, a source of heat.

  These tropisms help the plant survive by getting the plant all of the needed resources and without it, plants wouldn't be able to get enough water, heat, and sunlight.

The Role of Decomposers

  Decomposers are vital to the ocean ecosystem because they break down once living
matter into the ecosystem and release organic compounds to be used by plants. They
also recycle the dead material and plants. Without decomposers we wouldn't have
new plants because the plants wouldn't get the needed nutrients that help them
grow. We would eventually live in our own waste and everything would die without

-Sea Weed
-Sea Urchins
-Hag Fish


  Adaptations are important to organisms because they help them to survive and reproduce in their ecosystem. Adaptation helps the animal survive by developing  adaptations based on the changes in their environment to help them live in it and protect them from predators. An example of adaptations in the ocean are blowholes that help them breathe when the animals swim to the top, blubber that  allows teh animals to remain warm so they don't freeze, and

1. Animals that live in the colder temperatures of water have blubber or fat that help them remain warm. Also some animals keep their body temperature constant with a dense layer of fur that traps a layer of air next to the skin so that their skin never gets wet.

2. Some animals can breathe underwater but can't remain underwater for to long so they have to go to the top of the ocean and get air there. They breathe through single or paired blowholes on the dorsal surface of their head. At the surface, they quickly inhale and relax the muscular flap to close it so they can dive.

3. Plankton converts inorganic carbon into sugars that are stored in its cells. This allows the plant to live and feed itself even though the plant is underwater.

4. Most ocean plants have adapted to their environment by developing gas sacs and air sacks to lift their photosynthetic surfaces towards the surface of the water, to collect sunlight. Particularly in the deep ocean, these sorts of adaptations are critical. Examples of this type of adaptation include Sargasso sea weed, which are sometimes called 'sea grapes' because of the visibility of the gas sacs.

5. Fish have an adaptation that allow them to breathe underwater. They are able to do so because they can obtain oxygen through their gills, a specialized structure in which blood comes into contact with the water over a very large surface.

  If I were to place a dolphin that normally lives in the southern region in the arctic, it wouldn't have the adaptations needed to survive. The dolphin wouldn't have blubber to keep it warm and would eventually freeze to death. Also the dolphin would have to go up to the surface to breathe but might end up dying if the top freezes over and the dolphin can't get air.

Natural Selection

  Natural selection is the process by which certain inheritable traits become more common in a population over successive generations because of how the environment affects the organisms. Natural selection is very important for animals in an ecosystem because it spreads around the adaptations that are most effective in the changing environment; organisms have to adapt to their environment.

  The Great White shark is an example of natural selection in the ocean. Great White sharks are appropriately named with their huge white bellies, and it is no coincidence that sharks have developed this color pattern over the years. Why did sharks evolve blue or gray tops with white bellies? To understand this example of natural selection you must picture yourself being inside the ocean. If you are under water and you look up towards the surface you will see a bright blue or clear surface with the bright sun. However, when you look down towards the sea floor you will be looking into the dark blue color of the deep sea. It is no coincidence that sharks have a color pattern that makes them blend in. When you look at a shark from above, its dark blue or gray topside will blend in with the background of the deep and dark blue sea. When you look at a shark from below, its white belly will blend in with the bright colored surface waters along with the sun! This coloration evolved due to the sharks blending in with these two different backgrounds. The theory is that sharks blending in with the dark blues of the deep sea are difficult to spot from above and therefore their prey would not see them coming, and as a result those sharks would feed more often due to a higher rate of successful hunting. The Great White shark population would increase because of this adaptation through natural selection. The same goes for blending in with the bright surface waters.

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2 years ago

@stormyalvarado Thank you Stormy.

2 years ago

@whitneypetter Thanks Whitney.

2 years ago

@gracedean Thank you for your nice words.

2 years ago

@dianegunnip Thank You for your nice words.

2 years ago

Great job. You told great examples with lots of detail.

2 years ago

i love your format 😊

2 years ago

your portfolio is perfect

2 years ago

I love it! I would suggest that you check the way you word your predator/prey paragraph, some of the sentences don't make sense. 😜 😀

2 years ago

Wow, great job. Absolutely perfect.

2 years ago

Good job, everything is neat and clear. I would just change some of the headlines to text, it's hard to read when everything's the same.