The official language, Turkish, is the first language spoken by 90% of the 63m population.
- When meeting shake hands firmly. When departing it is not always customary to shake hands although it is practised occasionally.
- Turks smoke during meals and will often take breaks between courses to have a cigarette and a few drinks before moving onto the next.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, every citizen has the right to education which is free of charge for the compulsory primary education. Except in specially licensed and foreign institutions, Turkish must be taught as the mother tongue. Since 2012, twelve years of education is compulsory for boys and girls