Earth, Moon and Sun

By Nathan Pulling

Where I track the moon phases

About the Eclipses

-Solar Eclipse

- -These events occur when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, casting a shadow over earth.

- -There are three different types- Total Solar Eclipse, partial and annual.

- - - The Total Solar Eclipse is a solar eclipse where the moon seems to block out the entire sun. This is because the moon is 400x closer to Earth than the sun,

- - - The Partial Solar Eclipse occurs when the partial shadow, A.K.A the penumbra, passes over earth and a small part of the sun is still visible. If there is a partial eclipse somewhere, a total solar eclipse will occur from a different angle.

- - -The Annular Solar Eclipse is a rare form of an eclipse, and is definitely different. It is a type of partial eclipse, and can last a maximum of 12 minutes and 30 seconds. These types of solar eclipses contain the "Ring of Fire", scientifically known as the antumbra.

- - - The rarest form of a Solar eclipse is the Hybrid. These occur when the moon's distance is near its limit for the "Umbra" to reach earth, the full shadow.

- - Never look straight at them. An "experiment" has shown paper (representing an eye) incinerating from the magnified heat.

- - Information provided by space.com

-Lunar Eclipse. These occur when Earth's shadow blocks the sun's light which would otherwise reflect off the moon. These can only occur in a full moon.

- -As the moon slowly creeps away from earth, a lunar eclipse may not be available is a few million years.

- - There are three types; total, penumbral and partial.

- - -Total Lunar Eclipses are the most dramatic form, forming the popular "Blood Moon" where Earth's shadow completely covers the moon. This has caused much fear before our understanding of eclipses, because a giant red moon would be pretty scary.

- - -Partial Lunar Eclipse. These are always a part of total lunar eclipses, where earth's shadow only blocks out a portion of the moon.

- - -The weakest Lunar Eclipse, the Penumbral Eclipse. Even if you have the eyes to notice the change, it won't even be much a difference. This occurs when the Pemumbral is the shadow that hits the moon.

-Fun Facts

- -The word "lunatic" comes from the Greek prefix "luna" meaning "moon". It was previously thought that the moon caused bazaar actions and thoughts, hence the word "lunatic".

- -Before 1969, scientists had no idea what was on the moon. A popular myth was that a rabbit took residence there. Homebase had actually told the astronaut to look out for a rabbit, on the moon!

- -If the moon was about 20-21x closer, most areas near the cost would be ocean, places like New York City and London would be completely covered in the tidal waves.

Video of a Lunar Eclispe.

But it's not actually me recording

This is a very silly person trying to fly to the moon!

I wonder who it is!

Next Lunar Eclipse!

When: September 28, 2015

Where: Europe, South/East Asia, Africa, Much of North America, Lots of South America, Pacific and Atlantic and the Indian Oceans, Arctic, Antarctica.

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Waste yo-- I mean, buy the moon!

Fly me to the moooon

Earth, Moon and Sun

Section 1 Key Concepts

How does Earth move in space?

Earth moves in two different ways throughout space; in Rotations and Revolutions.

A Rotation is the movement of Earth on its Axis, or its imaginary line. Since there is only one side facing the sun at a time, it causes night and day-time. One Rotation is about 23 hours and 56 minutes (and four seconds) but we changed that to 24 hours on a clock.

A Revolution is the movement of Earth on its Orbit around the sun. Earth's Orbit is not exactly circular, it is a slight ellipse. One Revolution is 365.25 days. The Romans removed the 1/4 day from the calendar and created an extra day every four years, the Leap Year.

We use a calendar to track a revolution. A calendar divides a year--one revolution around the sun-- into months and days.

What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?

Earth gets its seasons because of its 23.5* tilt on its axis. As Earth revolves around the sun, the Northern and Southern Hemispheres face more or less directly at the sun, which causes the seasons.

When the Axis is facing the towards sun, it is Summer in the Northern Hemisphere.

When the Axis is facing away from the sun, it is Summer in the Northern Hemisphere.

Like the picture, the Axis is facing away from the sun and and the rays hit the Southern Hemisphere more directly, meaning it is warmer and it is summer. With out the tilted axis, we would have no seasons.

Section 2 Key Concepts

What determines the strength of the force of gravity between two objects?

The two main factors that effect the strength of gravity are Mass and Distance. As the distance between two objects increases, then the force of gravity between them decreases very quickly. The greater the mass of an object, the stronger its gravitational pull.

What two factors combine to keep the moon and Earth in orbit?

The two factors that keep our Earth, moon, and all other objects in orbit are inertia and gravity. Gravity pulls the object into its center of gravity, but a force called Inertia keeps it moving in space. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist motion. The more mass an object has, the greater the motion. This is what keeps Earth from being sucked straight into the sun or the moon crashing into Earth. The inertia causes the object to move in its orbit rather than just gravity.

Section 3 Key Concepts

What causes the phases of the moon?

A Moon Phase(s) is the shape of a moon at a given time. These phases are caused by changes in the positions of the moon, Earth, and the sun. Since the moon revolves around the Earth, you see the moon at different angles, so the phase depends on what part of the moon you see that is sunlit.

As you can see in the diagram, the same "side" of the moon is facing the sun (even though the moon rotates so that the same side faces Earth constantly, but just light-wise). Imagine you are looking straight up from the dark blue side during "5", you would be looking directly at a full moon since that side is facing Earth. When it becomes night time during "1", you would probably be searching for a new moon, since the unlit side faces Earth.

What are solar and lunar eclipses?

A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, casting a shadow over earth. There are different types of solar eclipses that can be seen depending on your angle relative to the sun and moon.

- - - The Total Solar Eclipse is a solar eclipse where the moon seems to block out the entire sun. This is because the moon is 400x closer to Earth than the sun,

- - - The Partial Solar Eclipse occurs when the partial shadow, A.K.A the penumbra, passes over earth and a small part of the sun is still visible. If there is a partial eclipse somewhere, a total solar eclipse will occur from a different angle.

- - -The Annular Solar Eclipse is a rare form of an eclipse, and is definitely different. It is a type of partial eclipse, and can last a maximum of 12 minutes and 30 seconds. These types of solar eclipses contain the "Ring of Fire", scientifically known as the antumbra.

- - - The rarest form of a Solar eclipse is the Hybrid. These occur when the moon's distance is near its limit for the "Umbra" to reach earth, the full shadow.

Looking at the solar eclipse without sunglasses or through a telescope can cause serious damage to your eyes, so don't do that.

A lunar eclipse occurs when Earth's shadow blocks the sun's light which would otherwise reflect off the moon. These can only occur in a full moon. Like solar eclipses, these have a  few different types.

- - -Total Lunar Eclipses are the most dramatic form, forming the popular "Blood Moon" where Earth's shadow completely covers the moon. This has caused much fear before our understanding of eclipses, because a giant red moon would be pretty scary.

- - -Partial Lunar Eclipse. These are always a part of total lunar eclipses, where earth's shadow only blocks out a portion of the moon.

- - -The weakest Lunar Eclipse, the Penumbral Eclipse. Even if you have the eyes to notice the change, it won't even be much a difference. This occurs when the Pemumbral is the shadow that hits the moon.

What causes tides?

Tides are the rise and fall of ocean water, which occurs approximately every 12.5 hours. Tides are caused mainly by the differences in how much moon gravity pulls on different areas of Earth. When the moon is over a specific part of Earth, that area experiences high tides because the moon pulls harder on those areas. This occurs on the exact opposite side of Earth too, where leftover water flows. The areas between them have low tides, because the water flows in different directions.

Spring tides also form when both the sun and the moon are pulling in equal or opposite directions. These occur about two times a month because they happen during new moons and full moons

Neap Tides also occur in a similar way, except they happen when the moon and sun gravity form an imaginary right angle. These tides mean that there is the least difference in high and low tides for that tide cycle. These can only happen at the first and third quarter phases.

Section 4 Key Concepts

What features are found on the moon's surface?

The moon has a variety of different features on its surface. This includes maria, craters and highlands.

Maria are the dark spots of the moon discovered by Galileo. "Maria" means seas in Latin. Maria were actually formed from lava flows around 3 or 4 billion years ago.

Craters are the circular holes on the moon, some can reach hundreds of kilometers across. Scientists used to mistake these craters for volcanoes on the moon, but they were actually caused by meteoroids that crashed into the surface. The moon has no atmosphere to protect it from these meteors. The maria had little craters compared to other spots, so the craters were formed early in its history.

Highlands were the brighter areas of land on the moon. These areas had mountains, they cast shadows which could be seen through telescope. The mountainous highlands are the major

What are some characteristics of the moon?

-The moon is dry and airless.

-Compared to Earth, the moon has large temperature variations on its surface.

-The moon is 3476 kilometers in diameter. This is just under the distance across the US

-The moon only has 1/80 of the mass of Earth

-The temperatures on the moon can range from about 130*C to -180*C. The moon's gravity is too weak to maintain an atmosphere with greenhouse gasses.

-There is evidence of large patches of ice near the poles of the moon; the temperatures there are cold enough to keep water frozen. These areas are covered by crater walls.

How did the moon form?

The most possible and plausible theory of the moon's formation is the collision-ring theory. About 4 or 5 billion years ago, Earth was very young, the solar system was full of debris. Some of this debris was the size of a small planets. The popular theory is that one of these objects collided with Earth and got caught in its orbit. All of the debris that had exploded from this collision had combined to form the moon.

Comment Stream

2 years ago
0

Привет, Дима. Спасибо за то, что ты поделились твой проект со мной. 😄

2 years ago
0

The cookie graph / diagram is fantastic!😃

2 years ago
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Cool time lapse!

2 years ago
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Lookin good

2 years ago
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Hilarious picture 😂 also great explanations!

2 years ago
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Wow! This is fabulous!😃 😀 😛