Industrial Revolution Project
By: Larissa Oachs
In the 1760's James Watt worked on the first Steam engine that was ever made in 1698 by using heat and by using less fuel. The industry needed a new and cheap way of getting power and found it in the steam engine. Coal was used to power the engine and make iron. Iron was used to improve machines and tools and to help build bridges and ships. In the first Steam engine water was used to power it.
Coal was used to fuel the stream engines and furnaces. Coal mining was very hard to find and when they did find it, it was very expensive and hard to move so the towns grew around the mining areas. Underground all the miners faced great dangers to gas explosions to the pit collapsing on them. To help with the dangers in mining children would sit underground and open up trap doors to let out the cloud of gas.
The first gas lighting was in London between 1812-1820. Gas lighting had an impact on social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to be able to be open longer at night without the use of a candle burning or oil. The night life was safer because the streets were able to have light. Coal gas was the main fuel for gas lighting.
Population was growing fast and cities knew that they would need cheap houses as the Industrial Revolution grew. Houses were built back to back with only one entrance unless you were lucky enough to get the end of the houses. The houses were built out of cheap materials that the builder could find and it caused the worst conditions such as dampness and moisture that would seep in through the house. All the houses that were built did not have a bathroom, toilet or running water because it was all very limited and had to be shared.
Children worked outside the house at under the age of 16 in cotton factories, mining and agriculture. Rich factory owners would feed and provide a home for the children in return of them working for them. Children were put under unhealthy working conditions, long hours and harsh punishments and did not get paid. The British government tried to protect the children from harsh environment by passing acts to limit hours and to make sure that the factories were following the child work guidlines.
When the migration of rural people came to the cities everyone's living conditions decreased. The cities had to make more room for the rural people to live and to have available jobs for them to work. Men worked in the factories and got paid more then women. Children were seen as the low cost labor. Standard of living was difficult because when people moved to the cities everything became very limited. The economy was put under pressure because of the rise in population.