Theme 1: Dialogue
“Every function in the child’s development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first between people...and then inside the child”(Vygotsky, 1978, p. 57).
As a result of my learning in this program, I have come to the conclusion that the theory of constructivism best explains the process of learning. It consists of having authentic experiences mixed with social interaction (Gabrinsky, Sandison & Langer, 2012). It involves the process of influencing each other through interaction. Learning is a social process since “Relationships are what enable you to ‘know’”(Wenger, 2000, p. 225). Through conversations, people experience cognitive dissonance when new information does not match what they already know (Lafortune, 2009). “Cognitive dissonance arises when new information contradicts or differs from that which makes up the individual’s cognitive repertoire…[it] forces people to adjustments and modify their ideas, beliefs, representations and practices with regard to whatever they are learning” (Lafortune, 2009, p. 50).
Social interaction is a key ingredient in the learning process. Vygotsky (1978) states that both speech and activity together is essential in developing intelligence. What he means by this is that what he found was that as children engaged in actions to reach a goal, as the complexity of the situation increased, so did the amount of the child’s speech. This suggests that speech plays a key role in achieving goals (Vygotsky, 1978). Interacting with others is the crucial first step to internalize whatever it is that they learn (Vygotsky, 1978).
In addition to dialogue, it is important to observe others and the consequences of their actions. By seeing the results of others’ actions the learner can generalize to other contexts (Bandura, 1978). This falls under social learning theory which “proposes that individuals learn through reinforcement, punishment, and observational learning” (Zydney et al., 2012). Bandura explains that behaviour that children display has to be learned, it is not automatically instilled in them at birth: “virtually all learning resulting from direct experience can also occur on a vicarious basis by observing the behaviour of others and its consequences” (Bandura, 1978, p. 14).
Engaging in dialogue with a more knowledgeable other is very beneficial. A more knowledgeable other is someone with a higher level of competence (More Knowledgeable Other, 2013). Vygotsky (2011) stresses that what one can do alone is good; however, by examining what one can do with the assistance of others shows a better measure of their intellectual development. He reasons that learners will eventually be able to perform independently those tasks they are now doing with assistance. The assistance can include asking questions, demonstrations, or starting it off and letting the learner continue or pairing them up with others (Vygotsky, 2011). The Zone of Proximal development is the “distance between the level of his actual development,with the help of independently solved tasks, and the level of possible development, defined with the help of tasks solved by the child under the guidance of adults or in cooperation with more intelligent peers” (Vygotsky, 2011, p. 204)
There is now a shift in extending the dialogue from face to face to video conferencing via devices and apps such as Skype. Another interesting tool being used in classrooms is called Mystery Skype. It uses the video conferencing abilities of Skype to connect with teachers and their classes around the world. Teachers can sign up on the Mystery Skype website and then both classes can meet via video conferencing and the students can exchange questions and answers to figure out the geographical location of each classroom. An important precaution to take is to ensure that learners take into consideration the culture of the other class and are clear on what constitutes an appropriate and inappropriate question. In addition, there are new chat tools like slack.com which enable people to collaborate and share media via their devices. However, it is important to note that since slack.com allows learners to communicate openly in a chat room, this is no censorship which can make it easy to engage in inappropriate behaviour such as online bullying or using inappropriate language. Thus, it is important for the teacher and learners to create a system of rules and consequences as well as look at examples of appropriate etiquette so learners know how to use this tool responsibly.
There has been a shift in focusing on helping learners develop a growth mindset instead of a fixed mindset. Olson & Dweck (2008) explain how achievement and motivation can be impacted by praising end results (e.g., grades) which helps individuals have a fixed-mindset versus praising the processes involved in achieving a result (e.g., effort) which aids in developing a growth mindset (i.e., the belief that one can grow in their knowledge and abilities). In addition, the focus seems to have shifted to examine factors such as the belief that one has an abundance of willpower leading to increased self-control (Job et al., 2015).
Bandura, A. (1978). Social Learning Theory of Aggression. Journal of Communication,
28(3), 12–29. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1978.tb01621.x
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willpower predict self-regulation and grades in everyday life. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 108(4), 637–647. http://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000014
Lafortune, L. (2009). Professional competencies for accompanying change: A frame of
reference. Boisbraind, QC: Prologue.
More Knowledgeable Other (2013). In Principles of Learning Wikipedia. Retrieved
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Olson, K., & Dweck, C. (2008). A Blueprint for Social Cognitive Development
Association for Psychological Science, 3(3), pp. 193 – 202.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological
processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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Development in Relation to Teaching and Learning. Journal of Cognitive Education
and Psychology, 10(2), 198–211.
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Artifacts Relating to Dialogue
Artifact 1: Final Paper for Curriculum Planning & Implementation Course
Subtheme - Learning Through Reflection
This is a paper that I wrote for the Curriculum Planning and Implementation course. I learned that for anyone to change and actually implement a change and sustain it, they need to undergo an accompaniment process which includes being supported by an accompaniment provider who forms a long-term relationship. This involves offering support, encouraging dialogue and reflection as well as working collaboratively as a group.
Lafortune and Lepage (2009) stress the idea that in order for others to make changes, I need to first increase their awareness by exposing them to new ideas and information and then spark them to reflect. Also, I learned that it is important to provide learning experiences that combine a series of active and passive activities (Fink, 2003). Passive activities include the process of presenting ideas and information through various forms of media (i.e., readings, videos and presentations). Whereas, active instruction requires learners to take action and engage in experiences. Another element of active instruction includes observations and then reflecting alone and with the group (Fink, 2003).
With respect to getting learners to reflect together and alone, here is where technology comes in. I think that a new blogging platform called http://buffalo.io is a great way to spark and record reflections and action plans. I have learned that the process of reflection can lead people to have cognitive dissonance (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009). When coupled with dialogue and support individuals experiencing cognitive dissonance are lead to make a change in their beliefs or actions to resolve the cognitive dissonance (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009).
The key for me as an educator today is to provide many opportunities for students to reflect. Prior to taking this course, reflection was not a priority either in my personal or professional life; however, I now see the value in reflection as a cornerstone for helping people make positive changes in their lives. I think that my teaching practice which mostly focused on telling and persuading needs to be combined with providing the learners with opportunities to reflect and then create action plans.
Next, I also learned the importance of planning out lessons by beginning with a clear description of the desired learning goals (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). After that is clear, the next step is to then think of the learning experiences and assessments that will enable the learners to meet the learning goals (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). Further, Wilson (2013) wrote a blog post where she shared Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy. This taxonomy helps teachers get an idea of different activities that can be included in learning experiences that range from more simple to complex in terms of the mental complexity such as from remembering, understanding, evaluating and then creating. In my own teaching practice, I have updated my lesson plan template to include an area for me to identify which component in the Anderson and Krathwohl’s taxonomy I will focus on for each lesson. I intend on using this lesson plan template when I return to the classroom this fall. I now have the intention to be sure that I use the taxonomy to plan activities that ensure the development of the learners and add in a balance of both passive and active learning experiences.
Fink, L. D. (2003). A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/qa5fbeg
(Chapter 1). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/qy8yxgd
bloom’s taxonomy. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/pxa6sbh
Artifact 2 - Naam Nidhaan (Board Game) Subtheme: Learning through collaboration (Principles of Learning Course)
The inspiration for a lot of the ideas implemented in this board game came from the Principles of Learning course in the M.Ed program at UOIT. The intention was to create an engaging game to help today’s youth learn the foundational principles of the Sikh religion.
One of the main ideas that I discovered in this course is the concept of transfer. To transfer your learning is the ability to apply what you have learned in a different context from the one you have learned it in (Transfer, 2010). In order for this to happen, the learner needs to organize their knowledge like the experts who organize their knowledge around key concepts (Bransford et al., 2000).
In addition, Hunter (2011) says that in order to learn a concept, a learner needs to hear more than just one example. He writes, "Provide many different examples of concepts you are teaching and make explicit connections to other things"(Hunter, 2011). Thus, when players land on a space titled with a main concept (i.e., blue spaces on the game board) such as selfless service, the player can get extra points for giving examples of the concept.
In addition, James (2006) stressed that if we want learners to transfer their learning, it is important to consider the idea of anticipating applications. This means that it is important to discuss how and when the ideas can be applied. Therefore, when players receive a chance card such as meditation, they receive extra points for explaining details regarding how and when they meditate. Here are further examples of the chance cards which players can get when they land on a question mark space:
The following are additional chance cards that players can get when they land on a question mark space on the game board. Images were courtesy of Sikhxth Sense Enterprises.
In How People Learn (2000) for transfer of learning it is suggested to first activate background knowledge and clear up misunderstandings and focus on helping learners understand the core concepts. Even Lewis et al. (2005) stresses that for transfer to occur we should get learners to know the key principles that can be applied across a diverse range of problems to find a solution. Thus, I consulted many sources to learn what the key principles are of Sikhism which are in the blue spaces (e.g., Sharing and Meditation) and the yellow ones are negatives such as obstacles on the path of Sikhism (E.g., Laziness, lying, and anger)
I learned about the importance of finding out the learner's preconceived notions before teaching them. Darling-Hammond, (2003) stresses the importance of starting a learning experience by first activating what they already know which can be done by having them draw, write or act it out so that they can express everything they know about a concept. Thus when players land on a space on the board with a key concept such as self-less service, I included a sand timer and within that time, players can explain and demonstrate that concept to the best of their ability. As a teacher I would be able to see their current level of understanding and help clear up any misunderstandings.
Also, Boettcher (2007) stresses that in addition to having them share their preconceived notions, it is important to then connect the new information to what they already know. “‘The more you know, the more you can know’” (p. 4) This means that the more information you have with you, the more easier it is to connect new information to what you already know. Thus, the aim of this game is to build each others’ background knowledge by hearing each others examples and explanations during the game play. Boettcher (2007) also stresses that we should make their learning visible and get learners to show what they know “create, talk, write, explain, analyze, judge, report and inquire” (p. 5). Thus when a chance card is flipped over, players get the chance to show what they know and get rewarded with spiritual currency, the better the answer the more spiritual currency they receive.
Boettcher, J. V. (2007). Ten core principles for designing effective learning environments: Insights from brain research and pedagogical theory. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 3, 8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.uproxy.library.dc-uoit...
Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., Cocking, R. R., & Donovan, S. (2000). How People Learn:
Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (Expanded Edition).
Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Detroit Public Television (Producer). Building on what we
know. Available from http://tinyurl.com/pa4ycyc
Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1992). Transfer of learning. International encyclopedia of
Transfer (2010). In Principles of Learning Wikipedia. Retrieved July 3, 2015, from
Artifact 3: Curriculum Unit Plan
(Curriculum Planning & Implementation Course)
Please click the blue link below to see the curriculum unit plan.
This artifact is a curriculum unit plan developed collaboratively with three other colleagues. This project gave us all the chance to contribute material and resources that we each felt passionate about. It consists of a series of learning experiences aimed at teaching participants how they can implement healthy habits ranging from goal-setting to developing the habit of running. The process of creating this plan began with identifying the overall objectives and learning goals. Next, we then began to focus on what evidence we would need as proof that the participants met the objectives. Lastly, we focused on what learning experiences would help the participants meet the learning objectives (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).
In this course I learned that awareness is the first step to change (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009). In addition, one of the main ideas stressed was to have the courage to get out of isolation and then engage in dialogue with one’s colleagues (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009). Next, for long-lasting change to take place, it is important to have an accompaniment provider who supports and guides individuals through a process of change which includes moments of cognitive dissonance (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009). Individually and as a group, it is important to reflect by analyzing, questioning and discussing one’s beliefs and practices (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009). The next step is to create action plans and then track the actions taken as evidence of progress (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009). It was also stressed that the facilitators of a program should have the courage to model the practices and be willing to make changes throughout the process as well (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009).
As a result of all this learning, I started using the website (http://educ5302yad.buffalo.io/starting-my-habit-of-running) to blog and track evidence of my progress along my journey of starting the habit of jogging. It also allows users to post pictures and share feelings, tips and strategies which are all key features in the accompaniment process (Lafortune & Lepage, 2009).
One of the main lessons I have learned from this course is the importance of reflection in order to trigger the process of change. Before this course, I thought that I could influence people to change by convincing them with persuasive arguments, listing benefits, giving them material to read and engaging in a dialogue about how their life can be changed for the better by implementing a new idea; however, I left out a key component which is reflection.
On the other hand, I now know that it is key to present new information and ideas, and spark the individual to engage in a reflective process, both alone and together with the group to look critically at what their beliefs are. Lafortune & Lepage (2009) stress the importance for examining one's beliefs because there seems to be a connection between one's actions and the beliefs which the individual has. I now value the importance of investing a large amount of time in working together with people versus working alone. I have created group chat channels using slack.com to help teams that I work with share ideas and information, and to support one another throughout a project. I have also come to the realization that a one day training is not enough. Therefore, it is important to establish a long-term supportive relationship if people are to change and grow (La fortune & Lepage, 2009).
In addition, I have also realized that for change processes to be accepted, implemented and maintained, it is important to start with getting the leaders of an organization to buy-in and lead the change process (Altrichter, 2005). Before this course, if I were to introduce new technology to improve the teaching practice of teachers, I would have invested my time and efforts in showing teachers on a one on one basis; however, now I see the value with starting with the leaders with the most influence in an organization.
Altrichter, H. (2005). Curriculum implementation - limiting and facilitating factors.
Context Based Learning of Science, 35-62.
Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/oz43493
innovative leadership. Fusion Collection 5. Québec: Presses de l’Université du
Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). What is backward design? Understanding by Design
(Chapter 1). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/qy8yxgd
Artifact 4: Punjabble (Board game)
Subtheme: Dialogue With a More Knowledgeable Other
(Social & Cultural Context in Education)
In the Social and Cultural Context of Education course, I learned about McIntosh (1989) who shared how being born as a white female gave her many advantages that she felt were not earned. She compared it to being equipped with an invisible backpack filled with resources that others of different ethnicity did not have. In the same way, I feel that being fluent in Punjabi and growing up in the Punjabi culture has given me similar unearned privileges (McIntosh, 1989). First, being fluent in Punjabi may provide an advantage to some job seekers as some employers might have a customer base that mainly speaks Punjabi. Therefore, if a job candidate can speak Punjabi they can be an asset to that organization because they can provide the customers with the information they require in their first language. Second, knowing the punjabi language helps in acquiring the spiritual wisdom contained in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib ji. Third, knowing the punjabi language helps one connect with the elders who are less fluent in english. Conversing with the elders helps one learn tips from the stories that may contain wisdom gained from their experiences which can help one to avoid making similar mistakes. Lastly, the Punjabi culture has taught me the value of hard work and sacrificing for one’s family. In my family, many of my relatives were farmers in India and share stories of working very long hours doing strenuous hard labour. Thus, the values of hard work and sacrifice are just two of the important values that I feel need to be passed on to the new generation.
The two images below depict first a Sikh male who resembles a typical farmer from India who would spend hours each day farming. The second image displays an elder in the kitchen who was likely preparing food for the common kitchen. Preparing food for the common kitchen at the Gurdwara (Sikh place of worship) is a great place for the younger members of the community to work together with the elders to converse and learn from them.
This game was created to keep the Punjabi language and culture alive and to pass on wisdom to the new generation. It is a game called Punjabble which was created collaboratively with friends and family. It is a punjabi version of the scrabble game. One of the aims is to help children and adults learn how to increase their fluency in reading, writing and speaking Punjabi in a fun way.
The letter tiles are laminated which allows players to use a dry-erase marker to write the vowel letters on the tiles. There are point values in the corner of each letter which is awarded to the player for using that letter in the creation of a word. The more uncommon letters that are more challenging to use have higher number values in the corner; where as, the more common letters have lower number values. In addition, each player starts with 7 letters to connect the letters to make a word. Furthermore, if you speak a sentence in Punjabi, using the word you just placed on the board, you get an extra point. Also, if you speak a line of Gurbani using that word you get 2 extra points (Gurbani is the term used for a line of scripture from Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji). Players can write their points and keep track of their growth online and get pins for reaching scores of 100, 300 and 500 points. Lastly, there is also the corresponding letter sound it makes in English in the top corner of each letter to help the players who do not know any Punjabi.
In the course Social and Cultural Context in Education, I learned the devastating impact of what happens when you take children from a culture and are brainwashed to forget their language, culture, traditions and break their ties with their family members (De Leeuw, 2009). In the Indian Residential Schools, I learned about Colonial leaders who wanted to confiscate land from the First Nations People by starting with changing the children to forget their culture. They started by isolating the children from anything that was tied to their identity. Also, speaking in their first language was prohibited (De Leeuw, 2009). The results of this project were very negative with the children feeling lonely, having bad memories, and wanting to commit suicide (De Leeuw, 2009). Learning about the consequences of the Indian Residential Schools helped increase my motivation to share this game with the world since it can create intergenerational connections where the new generation can interact and connect with the elders in the community. By playing the game together, players practice Punjabi and hear stories that spontaneously arise when players make words. Through dialogue, players can make mistakes and get it corrected from the other players.
Chavez et al. (2012) stressed the importance of having children learn social skills and build friendships. Thus, I feel that games such as these give them the opportunities to build their social skills. Chavez et al. (2012) also stressed the importance of providing children with time to engage in family bonding experiences and board games such as these help with providing families the chance to sit together and connect.
To conclude, I am so excited for chances to play punjabble with the members of my community as it can spark wonderful conversations where wisdom is shared that can equip the new generation with the knowledge they need to survive and thrive today.
Please see the screencast below to see how this game is in alignment with the socioconstructivist perspective. Through the website students can track their scores so that they can see their improvement over time and take the growth mindset that I can improve with effort (Great Schools, 2013).
Chavez, L. et al (2012). Starting from scratch. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 36,
Cummins, J. (2001). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention.
Harvard Educational Review 71(4), 1-18.
De Leeuw, S. (2009). “If anything is to be done with the Indian, we must catch him very
young”: colonial constructions of Aboriginal children and the geographies of Indian
residential schooling in British Columbia, Canada. Children’s Geographies, 7(2),
Lafortune, L., & Lepage, C. (2009). Professional accompaniment model for change: For
innovative leadership. Fusion Collection 5. Québec: Presses de l’Université du
McIntosh, P. (1989) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack Peace and
Freedom, July/August, 1-5.
Artifact 5: My Change Story (Paper)
(Dynamics of Change Course)
This is a paper I wrote in the Dynamics of Change class where I describe the change process that explains my journey of transformation both at an external and internal level. Up to about age 18, I was very social, outgoing and extroverted; however, after the life changing event of my father’s death, a change process began to transform me towards being more introverted.
Many factors influenced the beginning of the change process and helped maintain it as well. The first of these included knowledge, ideas and information. Additional factors included having social support plus the chance to observe role models in the community who were examples of successful baptized Sikhs. As I started the transformation to become a baptized Sikh by growing my beard and hair, there were many times when I felt overwhelmed with doubt and fear. As a result of this, I reverted back to my old ways of cutting my hair. Reflecting back on this experience, I noticed that the company I kept played more of a key role in helping me initiate and maintain the change I desired.
As a result of taking the Dynamics of Change course, I have learned that people need to participate and be involved if a change is to happen (Levin, 2000). In the early stages of my change process, the priest who stayed at my home to do prayers for my father’s soul, got me involved to meditate with him while he recited prayers. Also, I learned that the change process has a set of stages. First, change can be triggered by a crisis which can transform the culture of a group including their routines and norms (Burnes, 2004). In my case, the crisis was losing my father to cancer, which drastically changed the routines and culture in our home. In addition, as a part of Lewin’s Felt-Need theory, the first part of the change process is that there is a very strong need for a change (Burnes, 2004). Further, for someone to start experiencing the felt-need, it helps to present them with the relative advantages of the change (Ellesworth, 2000). It is also good to have respected individuals come and present the change (Hinde, 2003). This explains why I was influenced the most by my Aunt who flew down from Vancouver who had a prestigious administrator position at the Khalsa School there. Also, I was influenced by the Gurmat class teacher who taught at the Gurdwara. I respected him for he was my dad’s friend, he placed his rosary in my father’s casket, he did martial arts and was teaching everyone how to live the teachings of Sikhism.
After someone realizes that there is a need to change, people then start a scanning process where they search for answers (Schein, 1996). During this process, for change to take place, it is also important for people to see positive role models (Ellesworth, 2000). Social media helps us see positive role models as when one can view tweets of their thoughts and videos which enable us to see examples of their behaviour and thoughts (Joseph, 2012)
I learned that when people go through a change process, instead of doing it all by themselves it is good for them to work with others and collaborate (Fullan, 2010). When people are facing obstacles such as when they are experiencing cognitive conflict (DeLima, 2001), people need a strong support system (Hinde, 2003). The group can also provide support when emotions come up such as survival anxiety (Schein, 1996). With social media and the internet, they can get the support they need by connecting with like minded people (Joseph, 2012). Group support can be the key to refreezing new behaviours (Burnes, 2004). The reason for this is that as a group, they can collaborate, solve problems, make goals together, and decisions and share resources as well (DeLima, 2001). It is also key to get individuals to work together and collaborate (Fullan, 2010). If change is done as a group it is much better (Kurt Lewin’s Theory of Change( Burnes, 2004).
Some of the main ways that I have grown is that I tend to be more open to working with others and giving the learners I work with more opportunities to do group work. In addition, I have created group support systems to help my peers be successful in classes and when doing group projects. The following picture shows an example of a support group I created using facebook to help share ideas, resources, information and help each other.
Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal. Journal of Management Studies 41(6), 977-1002.
De Lima, J. (2001). Forgetting about friendship: Using conflict in teacher communities as a catalyst for school change. The Journal of Educational Change, 2(2), 97-122.
Ellsworth, J. B. (2000). Surviving changes: A survey of Educational change models.
Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse (Chapter 1, pp. 20-30 and Chapter 3, pp. 44-58).
Fullan, M. (2010, October 14). Michael Fullan on what school reform is [Video file].
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxjLqHphsVY
Hinde, E. (2003). Reflections on reform: A former teacher looks at school change and
the factors that shape it. Teachers College Record (Online).
Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/mgynzwo
Joseph, S. (2012). Social media, political change, and human rights. BC Int'l & Comp. L.
Rev., 35, 145.
Levin, B. (2000). Putting students at the centre in education reform. Journal of
Educational Change, 1(2), 155-172.
Schein, E. H. (1996). Kurt Lewin's change theory in the field and in the classroom: Notes
toward a model of managed learning. Systems practice, 9(1), 27-47.
Artifact 6: Using Twitter To Learn (Paper)
(Learning with Technology course)
The link below is a screen-cast describing the key ideas in a paper titled Using Twitter to Learn. In this video you will see how Twitter helps learners develop important competencies as well as allowing users to give each other instant feedback.
Davies, Anna, Fidler, Devin, & Gorbis, Marina. (2011). Future Work Skills 2020. Institute
for the Future for University of Phoenix Research Institute. Retrieved from
Desjardins, F. (2005). Information and communication technology in education: a
competency profile of francophone secondary school teachers in Ontario
(Document) Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/o8awauf
Desjardins, F. J., Lacasse, R. & Bélair, L. M., (2001). Toward a definition of four orders of
competency for the use of information and communication technology (ICT). In
Education, Computers and Advanced Technology in Education: Proceedings of the
Fourth IASTED International Conference, Calgary : ACTA Press, pp. 213-217.
Hattie, J., & Yates, G. (2014). Visible learning and the science of how we learn. New
York, NY: Routledge.
Rinaldo, Shannon B., Tapp, Suzanne, & Laverie, Debra. (2011). Learning by Tweeting.
Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2).
Softic, S. (2012). Towards identifying Collaborative Learning groups using Social Media -
EdITLib Digital Library. iJET, 7(2).
Artifact 7: Applying Learning Principles to Tae Kwon Do (Prezi)
Subtheme: Dialogue With a More Knowledgeable Other
(Principles of Learning course)
This artifact is a prezi which is embedded above the youtube video titled Let's Apply Principles of Learning to Tae Kwon Do (Please refresh the page if you do not see it yet). It was created for the Principles of Learning Class where after I learned all the principles of learning theory I had to think of how I could apply this to making Tae Kwon Do better. One of the big ideas that I learned in this course is the importance of being with, observing, imitating and dialoguing with a more knowledgeable other (More Knowledgeable Other, 2013). Darling-Hammond (2003) shares the idea of cognitive apprenticeships suggesting that teachers share and model their thinking practices and guide learners in their thinking. Thus, the concept of the more-knowledgeable other is a key factor in teaching, especially in tae kwon do with the main instructor taking this role.
Social Learning Theory says that we learn by imitating others, but paying attention is the first step. Thus to maximize learning, it would be wise to first get the attention of learners and then provide learning experiences for learners to watch and imitate.
Next they need someone to help them when they are off course. Metacognition involves seeing, and checking in with yourself whether or not you are understanding the material (Wasilow, 2009). Wasilow (2009) suggests that during the lesson, it is a good idea to provide pauses where the learner can reflect and check in with partners to summarize what they have learned or get help clarifying what they do not understand. In Tae Kwon Do, all students are wearing a coloured belt indicating their level of competence in this martial art. Thus, while teaching, the instructors should give students the chance to talk to each other in order to clarify their understanding instead of stressing a conversation-free dojo.
In addition, Willis (2007) stresses that practice is key in order to get the learning into the long term memory of the learners; however, even more powerful is when learners are given feedback while they are practicing. Tae Kwon Do teaching provides many opportunities to practice the movements required to defend ourselves. Since there is only one instructor, many times the students are practicing without feedback. It would be a good idea for the instructor to guide the partners to each take the role of the instructor and give each other tips while they are practicing just like how an instructor would. In addition, it can be more beneficial to show new moves to be learned in multiple ways (i.e., visually, auditory & kinesthetically). For example, a movie clip can be shown of the moves being performed or learners can discuss what they are observing about the movements.
Hunter (2011) stresses the importance of tracking process and helping them feel like they are progressing. Thus, the process of rewarding students with a belt is a good practice. In addition, instructors can add in other systems such as a tracking chart for students to chart their growth in their ability to do certain exercises such as tracking how many push-ups they performed each class to see their growth over time.
Willis (2007) suggests that in order to help learners process and retain the new knowledge, it is better to teach the new material in chunks. What this would mean in terms of teaching Tae Kwon Do would be to break down a pattern into units of 3 movements instead of teaching the entire pattern at once (Please see the video below to see an example of a pattern in Tae Kwon Do)
Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Detroit Public Television (Producer). Building on what we
know. Available from http://tinyurl.com/pa4ycyc
Quarterly, 14(3). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/p4vpwyb
2015 from http://tinyurl.com/ozo3gvd
Willis, J. (2007). Brain-Based Teaching Strategies for Improving Students’ Memory,
Learning, and Test-Taking Success. Childhood Education. 83(5), p.310.