A translation is determined by distance and direction. Another name for a translation is sliding motion. A translation means moving without doing anything else to the shape. When you translate a shape every point must move the same direction and in the same direction.
Example: when we want to say the shape gets moved 30 units up the x-axis which is x+30 and if your shape gets move 45 units down the y-axis it would be y-45.
This is another example of a translation.
A rotation is determined by a point called the center of the rotation and a directed angle of rotation. Another name for rotation is turning motion. Rotation means turning around the center. Every point makes a circle around the center.
This a image of a 90, 180, 270 and 360 degree rotations.
A line reflection is determined by a "mirror line" (or a line of reflection) that is the perpendicular to a line segment connecting a point and its reflected image. Every point is the same distance from the line of reflection and the reflection is the same size as the original image. A reflection is a flip over the x-axis or the y-axis.
This is a example of a reflection.
A scale factor is the ratio of the distance between any two image points and the distance between their preimages under the transformation. A scale factor makes the preimage bigger by multiplying a number to get the image.
This is image of how a scale factor/dilation works.