Concepts of God

By Blaise, Jose, Stefan, and Zach



Ontological arguments "are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world" (Oppy).


Cosmological arguments use facts to make a certain deduction about the world and beyond to prove the existence of God (Reichenbach).


The explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated causes. (Google Definition)


The absence of necessity; the fact of being so without having to be so. (Google Definition)


St. Anselm of Canterbury

- born in Aosta, which was part of the kingdom of Burgundy

- studied at the Monistery in Bec (France)

- created the Ontological Argument

"Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. IEP, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

Rene Descartes

- born in La Haye, France

- educated in a Jesuit college since he was 8 years old

- earned a law degree at age 22

- Dutch philosopher inspired Descartes to study philosophy

- "I think, therfore I am"

"Réné Descartes Biography." A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

St. Thomas Aquinas

- born in Italy

- was sent as a five year old to Abbey of Monte Cassino to train among Benedictine monks

- famous for his cosmological agrument

"St. Thomas Aquinas Biography." A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

Richard Taylor

- PhD from Brown University

- wrote about the meaning of life and metaphysics

- was an famous beekeeper

"Richard Taylor Biography." Http:// N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

William Paley

- lectured on divinity at Cambridge

- best known for his analogical design arugment (watch argument)

"Philosophy of Religion." Philosophy of Religion William Paley Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.


Why were philosophical arguments for the existence of God NOT used by the Biblical authors?

Biblical authors used real face to face accounts to tell the story of Jesus. Jesus taught his disciples of God not in a philosophical way. Jesus would tell stories and perform miracles in the name of God.

Why were philosophical arguments for the existence of God eventually developed by theologians and philosophers?

Philosophers that used ontological arguments to support God's existence used these arguments because they were not present in Jesus' time.They had to use their own logic and experiences to develop their theories and ideas, while the disciples used real accounts.

Descartes'Ontological Argument

Descartes thought of God in terms of a perfect being as well.Descartes was in agreement that existence was more perfect than non-existence.There are some qualities that an object necessarily has or else it would not be that object.

"Philosophy of Religion." Descartes’ Support for the Ontological Argument. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.

Aquinas Cosmological Argument

His five proofs are:

The Argument from Motion

The Argument from Efficient Cause

The Argument to Necessary Being

The Argument from Gradation

The Argument from Design

The strength is that most gullible and ignorance people cannot
understand it and will assume that they are true.
The weakness is that all of them are base on the same concept of
ignorance is bliss.

Exerpt from the second stanza of the Nordic epic Völuspá.

This is a strong example of the Cosmological arguement. The religous beleif of this culture drew their surroundings and every day life into epic legends which manifest into religous beleifs. This passage describes how the culture views life essence and youth in a context beyond their own being.

"An ash I know there stands,Yggdrasill is its name,a tall tree, showeredwith shining loam.From there come the dewsthat drop in the valleys.It stands forever green overUrdr's well."

Paley's argument for the existence of God is when he compares the workd to a watch. The world has many  parts working  together for a higher purpose.

The argument is not necessarily incompatible with evolution and Big
Bang: both of these processes could be part of the design of the
universe. The concept of God as designer reinforces the idea that God is
involved in the history of the universe and is therefore omnipotent,
omniscient and omnibenevolent.

It is an inductive proof and therefore only leads to a probable conclusion
The universe is unique and we cannot make assumptions about the
creation of unique things. The world may be designed, but there may be more than one designer. Worlds are not like watches.

"Strengthes and Weaknesses: Teleogical Argument." Philosophical
Investigation. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.

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