Caliph- a title the Muslim use for the highest leader of Islam.

Tolerance- or acceptance.

Baghdad- in what is now Iraq, became the capital of the Islamic Empire in 762.

Cordoba- a great  city in Spain, became another showplace of  Muslim civilization.

Janissaries- slave soldiers, called janissaries, converted to Islam and became fiercely loyal warriors.

Istanbul- Mehmed made Constantinope, which the Ottomans called Istanbul, his capital.

Sufism- which taught people they could find God's love by having a personal relationship with God.

Minarets- tall towers from where Muslims are called to prayer.

Calligraphy, or decorative writing.

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