By: Emily Hargreaves

From the Greek words nitron and genes, which together mean "saltpetre forming" making the word "Nitrogen". Nitrogen is formally considered to have been discovered by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air. Nitrogen is a fairly common element in the Earth's crust. It is by far the most important element of the Earth's atmosphere, making up about 78.084 percent.

Liquid Nitrogen

Melting point: 63.15 K (−210.00 °C, −346.00 °F)

Boiling point: 77.355 K (−195.795 °C, −320.431 °F)

Density: 1.251 g/L

Nitrogen is used in farming

Nitrogen has many uses, such as:

  • Used in ammonia, NH3, production (Haber process). This is the greatest use of nitrogen. Ammonia is used for fertilizer production and to produce nitric acid (Ostwald process)
  • Used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during production of such components as transistors, diodes, etc.
  • Used in annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products
  • Used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods
  • Liquid nitrogen is used by the oil industry to build up pressure in wells to force crude oil upward
  • Used as an intert atmosphere in tanks of explosive liquid storage tanks, both in ground-based tanks and in ships


  •   At room temperatures, Nitrogen is a GAS
  • At below 437 Degrees F. it is a liquid.
  • The air around us is made of several different gases. Mostly nitrogen (78%) and some oxygen (21%) and traces other gases like argon, water, carbon dioxide, ozone, and more
  • Under normal conditions nitrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.
  • Nitrogen gas is used in food storage to keep packaged or bulk foods fresh. It is also used in the making of electronic parts, for industrial purposes and has many other useful applications.
  • Nitrogen gas is often used as an alternative to carbon dioxide for storing beer in pressurized kegs. The smaller bubbles it produces is preferred for some types of beer.
  • Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an atmosphere nearly entirely made of nitrogen (over 98%). It is the only moon in our solar system known to have a dense atmosphere.
  • Nitric acid (HNO3) is a strong acid often used in the production of fertilizers.
  • Ammonia (NH3) is another nitrogen compound commonly used in fertilizers.

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