Kingdoms and Domains CORY FORD A-4


  1. The Archaea constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells.


Bacteria are prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera), which means that they have no true nucleus. They do have one chromosome of double-stranded DNA in a ring. They reproduce by binary fission

.Domain: Bacteria

Kingdom: Eubacteria
Cell Type: Prokaryote
Cell Structures: Cell walls WITH peptidoglycans
Number of Cells: unicellular
Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph


Protists were traditionally subdivided into several groups based on similarities to the "higher" kingdoms: the unicellular "animal-like" protozoa, the "plant-like" protophyta (mostly unicellular algae), and the "fungus-like" slime molds and water molds

Protists are eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as a plant, animal or fungus. They are mostly unicellular, but some, like algae, are multicellular.


A fungus is any member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms

The organisms in kingdom fungi include mushrooms, yeasts, molds, rusts, smuts, puffballs, truffles, morels, and molds. More than 70,000 species of fungi have been identified.


Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular  eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form a clade that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae

  • Plants are autotrophs, meaning they can make their own food. ...
  • Plants make their own food through a process called photosynthesis where the plant takes carbon dioxide gas, water and light and transforms these three ingredients into sugar and oxygen


Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on i

  • Multicellular: which means they are made up of more than one cell. ...
  • Heterotrophic: which means they have to get their own food. ...
  • Eukaryotes: this is the type of cells animals have in their lives.

DOMAIN ARCHEAE:The Archaea constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells.

Characteristics of the archaea

  • Cell walls: virtually all bacteria contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls; however, archaea and eukaryotes lack peptidoglycan. ...
  • Fatty acids: bacteria and eukaryotes produce membrane lipids consisting of fatty acids linked by ester bonds to a molecule of glycerol.


  1. The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
  2. a. Bacteria are prokaryotic cells.
    b. Like the Eukarya, they have membranes composed of unbranched fatty acid chains attached to glycerol by ester linkages (see Fig. 1).
    c. The cell walls of Bacteria, unlike the Archaea and the Eukarya, contain peptidoglycan.
    d. Bacteria are sensitive to traditional antibacterial antibiotics but are resistant to most antibiotics that affect Eukarya.
    e. Bacteria contain rRNA that is unique to the Bacteria as indicated by the presence molecular regions distinctly different from the rRNA of Archaea and Eukarya.


  1. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea) is the nucleus, which contains the genetic material, enclosed by the nuclear envelope.
  2. :
    • Eukaryotic cells
    • Unicellular (some Protists and yeasts), Colonial (some Protists) or Multicellular (most Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia) organisms
    • Cell division by mitosis, with a variety of cycles of reproduction and recombination
    • A variety of modes of access to energy and carbon, varying with kingdom

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