Boreal Forest Biome

Kaitlyn Parker

The Boreal Forest

The Boreal Forest, otherwise known as the Taiga, is a mountainous, cold biome made of mostly pines and spruces. Most of Canada and Russia are covered by the trees and mountains that make up this biome. The Boreal Forest is the worlds largest terrestrial biome. 29% of the world's forest cover is represented by the boreal.

Fun Fact: The Boreal Forest is named after Boreas, the Greek god of North wind.


The temperatures are very cold, ranging from about -50 degrees to about 20 degrees C. The average is below freezing in the winter, with lots and lots of snow. During the summer, it is usually humid,  and the temperatures vary from -5 degrees to around 20 degrees C.

The average annual precipitation is about 10 to 30 inches,  including rain, snow, and dew.


The most dominant plant form in the Boreal Forest is the coniferous tree. It retains its needles through the winter, and also sheds snow easily. The needles' thick, waxy coating helps them to retain cold weather conditions and reduce the amount of water loss. These adaptions allow photosynthesis to happen, and the trees can receive their source of energy.

Coniferous Trees

Mosses and lichens can also be found in the Boreal Forest. These are important because it is included in the diet of many animals that live in the Boreal Forest. examples of some mosses and lichens found in the biome include:

Polytrichum Moss

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