#TackkThursday #ThrowbackThursday#Heredity

If someone has blood type A, they must have at least one copy of the A allele, but they could have two copies. Their genotype is either AA or AO. Similarly, someone who is blood type B could have a genotype of either BB or BO. A blood test of either type AB or type O is more informative.

Punnett Squares

The outcomes are that the flowwers will be green.

also  there will be three homozygous outcomes

and there will be one heterozygous outcomes

why offspring that result from sexual reproduction are likely to have more diverse characteristics than offspring that result from asexual reproduction.

asexual reproduction is the creation of offspring from one parent. There is no mating or mixing of genetics in asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction results in a clone of the parent, meaning the offspring has identical DNA as the parent. There is usually no variation from generation to generation in a species population that relies on asexual reproduction.

One way for an asexually reproducing species to get some diversity is through mutations at the DNA level. If there is a mistake in mitosis or the copying of the DNA, then that mistake will be passed down to the offspring, thereby possibly changing its traits. Some mutations do not change the phenotype, however, so not all mutations in asexual reproduction result in variations in

the offspring.

while Sexual reproduction happens when a female gamete (or sex cell) unites with a male gamete. The offspring is a genetic combination of the mother and the father. Half of the offspring's chromosomes comes from its mother and the other half come from its father. This ensures the offspring are genetically different from their parents and even their siblings.

Mutations can also happen in sexually reproducing species to further add to the diversity of the offspring. The process of meiosis, which creates the gametes used for sexual reproduction, has built in ways to increase diversity as well. This includes crossing over, which ensures the resulting gametes are all different genetically. Independent assortment of the chromosomes during meiosis and random fertilization also add to the mixing up of genetics and possibility of more adaptations in offspring.

definitions

Adaptation: In biology, an adaptation, also called an adaptive trait, is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection

Evolution: the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth

Species: a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus and denoted by a Latin binomial

Gene: a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Genetic:of or relating to genes or heredity.

Sexual reproduction:the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes). In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced by the other

Asexual reproduction: a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it is reproduction which almost never involves ploidy or reduction

the survival value of genetic variation.

All living organisms carry a genetic blueprint. This is so regardless of whether they are plants, animals, or fungi, whether they are short- or long-lived, and whether they reproduce sexually or clonally. Therefore, to the extent that restoration deals with living organisms, genetics are part of the picture. Although the basic principles underlying restoration genetics may be familiar, to date surprisingly little attention has been devoted to genetic considerations in restoration practice. The purpose of this Restoration Science and Policy Paper is to outline some considerations that restoration designers and managers should be aware of, and to identify more detailed resources that may be useful in practice.