Stars 

A glimmer in night sky

Intro

         Stars are very important on what information you know about it because you never know if the Sun will explode in less than about five billion years because it can. There are dangers in stars when their very close to Earth, so I found some information on them and what is their life span, temperature, brightness, and much more interesting things about them.    

A picture of a white Dwarf star

How stars are created

          So the way stars are created is with gas and a very hot gas substance, also known as plasma. So the creation is often caused by energy waves from nearby exploding supernova.But some/most stars like white dwarf and neutron stars are tightly packed with atoms.So that means that they are much more dense than anything on the face of the Earth.

           Over the time that it is created in, gravity pulls hydrogen into nebula together and it causes it to spin. As it spins faster and faster, the gas heats up and is now known as a protostar. Sometime soon, the temperature reaches 15,000,000 degrees celsius and then the nuclear fusion occurs into the clouds core. Then the cloud starts to glow brightly and at this stage it contracts a little and becomes a bit more stable than before. It is now called the main sequence star and will remain this stage shining very bright for millions or even billions of years to come.

What happens if stars collided?

           There are several possibilities for a star colliding into another star and if collision speed is much higher than a certain threshold speed, let’s say about 300 to 400 miles per second which is enough kinetic that would be imparted to the two masses that the stellar material would scatter into an expanding cloud of gas never to reassemble itself into another new star. But if the speed were very slow, then the star would merge into a new, and even more massive star. The evolution of the brand new star will begin with a rejuvenated (make or look something feel more lively) core of fresh fuel since the merging of the two stars it would have mixed new hydrogen fuel into the core of the new formed star. But if the speed of the impact is moderate, and off center then the stars will go into a very tight orbit around each other, and perhaps even sharing a common gas like envelope. Then over time, the two separate cores would spiral into each other, and you would again be left with one new, massive star.                                                                            

Two Stars Colliding into each other

     When a star collides it creates another star that’s even bigger than before, but how is that? It’s really common for stars to collided since they form from an extremely large gas cloud. Sometimes, even a red giant star in a binary system gets so big, that it will bump into a star orbiting nearby. This crash could shave about 90% of the red giants star mass off, but some astronomers are still trying to figure out what happens.

     Some researchers who made the find on what happens to the red giant star, were actually on the hunt for alien planets. They turned up what is called an “eclipsing” binary system, meaning that one of the stars passes in front of the other from the perspective of Earth.

The brightness of a star

The magnitude of a star is based on a scale more than 2,000 years old, which is devised or invented by a Greek astronomer named Hipparchus in 125 B.C. Hipparchus numbered groups of stars based on their brightness as they have been seen from Earth and the brightest ones were called first magnitude stars, the next brightest were called second magnitude, and so on up to sixth magnitude, the faintest visible ones. Nowadays, some astronomers refer to a star's brightness as viewed from Earth as its apparent magnitude, but since the distance between Earth and the star can affect the light one sees from it, the astronomers now also describe the actual brightness of a star using the term absolute magnitude, which is defined by what its apparent magnitude would be if it were 32.6 light years from Earth. Then the magnitude scale now runs to more than six and less than one,and even descending into negative numbers, the brightest star in the night sky is Sirius, with an apparent magnitude of -1.46.                                                                                         The way we see stars isn’t actually what they seem, stars are much brighter than you see them at night. The twinkling of the stars is what you see as “stars”, but the twinkling of the stars is actually caused by the Earth’s atmosphere. The twinkling that we see every night are different sizes because it depends on the brightness of the star.

The actual brightness of the star is the amount of light energy the star emits or sends out and the distance from Earth to the star. A nearby star that is actually dim can actually appear brighter than a distant star that is really extremely awesome.

Alpha Centauri A for example seems to be slightly brighter than a star known as Rigel. But Alpha Centauri A emits only one out of a hundred thousand ( 1/100,000 ) as much light energy as Rigel. Alpha Centauri A seems brighter because it is only about 1/200 as far from Earth as Rigel is—4.4 light-years for Alpha Centauri A, 700-900 light-years for Rigel.

          

The temperature of a star

The different temperatures of three different types of stars (Red, yellow (also the type of star the Sun is), and Blue.

        There are different types of temperatures for different types of stars. The surface temperature of a star depends on its mass and also affects its brightness and color. Some astronomers measure the star temperatures in a unit that they known as the “Kelvin”, which is the temperature of zero K or “absolute zero” which is equaling minus 273.15 degrees celsius or minus 459.67 fahrenheit. For a dark red star, the surface temperature 2,500 K or 2,225 celsius and 4,040 fahrenheit and a bright red star has the surface temperature of about 3,500 K or 3,225 celsius and 5840 fahrenheit. The sun and other yellow stars, in temperature are about 5,500 K or 5,225 celsius and 9,440 fahrenheit and a blue star, in temperature is about 10,000 K which is 9,725 celsius or 17,540 fahrenheit to 50,000 K which is 49,725 celsius and 89,540 fahrenheit.

         One of the most common stars in the entire Universe are the relatively tiny red dwarf stars (which is the coolest star of all). The red dwarf stars can have as little as 7.5 percent the mass of the Sun, and top out at about 50 percent. Red dwarfs use their stores of hydrogen fuel very slowly and it’s believed that a red dwarf star with about 10% the mass of the Sun may live for 10 trillion years or more. Our own Sun will only live for only about 12 billion years. Red dwarf stars have a surface temperature of less than 3,500 Kelvin, and this is why they appear red to our eyes.

            Our own Sun is also known as a yellow dwarf star. It has a surface temperature of about 5,800 Kelvin, and because of this temperature, the bulk (mass) of the light we see streaming from the Sun is yellow/white. Our Sun has been in the main sequence phase of its life for 4.5 billion years, and it’s expected to last another 7 billion years or more/less.

          The most hottest star is the blue star. These stars start at temperatures of about 10,000 Kelvin (absolute zero), and the biggest, hottest blue Supergiants can be more than 40,000 Kelvin. In fact, there’s so much energy coming off the surface of a blue star that many could actually be classified as ultraviolet stars, it’s just that our eyes can’t see that high into the spectrum.

Bibliography  
(The certain websites I used)

It's amazing right? ^-^

Comment Stream

2 years ago
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I hope you enjoyed my paper ^-^ 😊