Momentum- is a characteristic of a moving object that is related to the mass and velocity of the object.
Conservation of momentum- is principle stating that the total linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system.
The formula for momentum is mass*velocity= momentum or m*v=p. (No one is sure why "p" is used for momentum. It likely came from the Latin word "petere" which means "go towards". They couldn't use "m". "m" was already used for mass.) So if you have a small motorcycle and a big van they can possibly have the same momentum. The velocity would have to increase or decrease.
Sticky and non-sticky collision
In non-sticky collision, when two object interact, the objects swap velocities. The object going faster will go slower and the object going slower will go faster.
In sticky collision, when two object conjoin, they then share the same momentum.
Elastic and Inelastic collision
In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. Almost no energy is lost to sound, heat, or deformation. The first rubber ball deforms, but then quickly bounces back to its former shape, and transfers almost all the kinetic energy to the second ball.
Inelastic collision is when objects do not behave elastically during the collision. This means that, at the point of impact, the particles do not deform elastically; meaning they may permanently deform, resulting in energy loss during impact. That being said, if you though a ball of clay on the ground then it will deform and not bounce back.
This is when the object spins around and around like a top instead of going straight like the baseball or the car. In space stars, black holes, planets, and other celestial body all have angular momentum and spin around.