Rapid changes in Earth's surface
Earthquakes are rapid changes because the plates underneath us start to shift against each other.When that happens, we shake too. Sometimes (like in the picture above)the surface of the Earth cracks as well.
A landslide/mudslide is a rapid change because big chunks of land are falling from the rest of the land.
Volcanic eruptions are rapid changes because when the lava flows, it layers on top of the existing land, forming new, higher land.Once it dries all the way through,it might be safe to walk on.